# ICEIS 2013 Abstracts

## Area 1 - Databases and Information Systems Integration

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 27
Title:

### An Analysis of Supply Chain Collaboration and Its Impact on Firm Performance - An Integration of Social Capital, Justice, and Technology Use

Authors:

#### Mai-Lun Chiu, Chu-Ying Fu and Ing-Long Wu

Abstract: Collaboration has become a critical component to fulfill the need for integration in the supply chain. From a discussion of the literature, there are two major underlying concerns arising in the collaboration, organization's sharing behaviors and technology use behaviors. In expectation confirmation theory, an organization's sharing behaviors may initially mean a pre-expectation of common resources available in the supply chain and further, a perceived fairness between participants for the willingness to participate in the partnership. Social capital theory and justice theory, in essence, explain the two beliefs of supply chain members as the IS success model defining the belief of technology use. This study integrates the three key issues to examine collaboration in a comprehensive and unique way and its role in affecting focal firm performance. Empirical findings have led to better understanding of the relative effects of the three issues and a well-achieved organizational performance.

Paper Nr: 50
Title:

### Are Multi-way Joins Actually Useful?

Authors:

#### Michael Henderson and Ramon Lawrence

Abstract: Multi-way joins improve performance by avoiding extra I/Os from multiple partitioning steps. There are several multi-way join algorithms proposed, and the research results are encouraging. However, commercial database systems are not currently using multi-way joins. Practical issues include modifying the optimizer and execution system to support multi-way operators and ensuring robust and reliable performance. The contribution of this work is an implementation and experimental evaluation of multi-way joins in PostgreSQL. We provide algorithms that modify the optimizer to cost multi-way joins and create and execute query plans that have more than two input operators. Experimental results show that multi-way joins are beneficial for several queries in a production database system and can be effectively exploited by the optimizer, however there are implementation issues that must be resolved to guarantee robust performance.

Paper Nr: 82
Title:

### ERP Integration - A Systematic Mapping Study

Authors:

#### Tommi Kähkönen and Kari Smolander

Abstract: Companies have been adopting Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems for decades in order to integrate business functions to increase their competitiveness. The original goal of ERP was to provide an all-in-one integrated suite for the enterprise. However, in a modern business environment, ERPs are integrated externally with customers, suppliers and business partners and internally with continuously changing system landscape of the enterprise. In this paper we present a systematic mapping study that investigates how ERP integration-related issues have been studied by the academia between 1998 and 2012. Studies about technological issues are mostly dealing with systems inside a company whereas studies on methodological issues focus on the integration of the supply chain management and e-business. However, these studies are often either carried out without a rigorous research method or they are based on single cases only. Quantitative methods have been mainly used to investigate quality attributes of ERPs. It is still unclear, how integration issues are effectively solved by a network of stakeholders in an ERP project. This requires more research in the future.

Paper Nr: 139
Title:

### Fairtrace - A Semantic-web Oriented Traceability Solution Applied to the Textile Traceability

Authors:

#### Bruno Alves, Michael Schumacher, Fabian Cretton, Anne Le Calvé, Gilles Cherix, David Werlen, Christian Gapany, Bertrand Baeryswil, Doris Gerber and Philippe Cloux

Abstract: This paper presents solutions that leverage SemanticWeb Technologies (SWT) to allow pragmatic traceability in supply-chains, especially for the textile industry. Objectives are the identification of the supply-chain, order management, tracking and problem reporting (such as dangerous substance detection). It is intended to be a generic platform supporting potentially any kind of industrial supply-chain, to be usable in harsh environments (mobile appliances) without any kind of communications possibility and to be fully usable to non-IT people, including for the modeling of the production processes. The developed solutions also allow the consumer to benefit from the traceability through information pages available by scanning the QR codes available on the finished products (clothes, clocks, etc.). This paper presents: i) the methodology applied to achieve those functionalities, ii) the design and implementation choices, and iii) the test results. The main value of this paper is the usage of the SemanticWeb in real-world industrial traceability solutions, which were tested in real supply-chains in Switzerland and India. The commercialization of the developed solutions is in preparation.

Paper Nr: 164
Title:

### Selecting Adequate Samples for Approximate Decision Support Queries

Authors:

#### Amit Rudra, Raj P. Gopalan and N. R. Achuthan

Abstract: For highly selective queries, a simple random sample of records drawn from a large data warehouse may not contain sufficient number of records that satisfy the query conditions. Efficient sampling schemes for such queries require innovative techniques that can access records that are relevant to each specific query. In drawing the sample, it is advantageous to know what would be an adequate sample size for a given query. This paper proposes methods for picking adequate samples that ensure approximate query results with a desired level of accuracy. A special index based on a structure known as the k-MDI Tree is used to draw samples. An unbiased estimator named inverse simple random sampling without replacement is adapted to estimate adequate sample sizes for queries. The methods are evaluated experimentally on a large real life data set. The results of evaluation show that adequate sample sizes can be determined such that errors in outputs of most queries are within the acceptable limit of 5%.

Paper Nr: 198
Title:

### A Data-adaptive Trace Abstraction Approach to the Prediction of Business Process Performances

Authors:

#### Antonio Bevacqua, Marco Carnuccio, Francesco Folino, Massimo Guarascio and Luigi Pontieri

Abstract: This paper presents a novel approach to the discovery of predictive process models, which are meant to support the run-time prediction of some performance indicator (e.g., the remaining processing time) on new ongoing process instances. To this purpose, we combine a series of data mining techniques (ranging from pattern mining, to non-parametric regression and to predictive clustering) with ad-hoc data transformation and abstraction mechanisms. As a result, a modular representation of the process is obtained, where different performance-relevant variants of it are provided with separate regression models, and discriminated on the basis of context information. Notably, the approach is capable to look at the given log traces at a proper level of abstraction, in a pretty automatic and transparent fashion, which reduces the need for heavy intervention by the analyst (which is, indeed, a major drawback of previous solutions in the literature). The approach has been validated on a real application scenario, with satisfactory results, in terms of both prediction accuracy and robustness.

Paper Nr: 239
Title:

### Experimental Studies in Software Inspection Process - A Systematic Mapping

Authors:

#### Elis Montoro Hernandes, Anderson Belgamo and Sandra Fabbri

Abstract: Background: The interest in produce experimental knowledge about verification and validation techniques increases over the years. This kind of knowledge can be useful for researchers who develop studies in that area as well as for industry that can make decisions about verification and validation activities (V&V) on the basis of experimental results. Aim: This paper aims to map the empirical studies conducted in the software inspection process area. Method: Each step of the Systematic Mapping (SM) process was performed with the support of the StArt tool, and the papers from major databases, journals, conferences, and workshops were covered. Results: Seventy nine papers were accepted in this mapping and helped identifying the inspection processes, techniques and tools commonly referenced in that papers, as well as the artifacts usually inspected and the research groups and universities frequently involved in these papers. Conclusion: Different inspection processes have been investigated through experimental studies, and the Fagan’s process is the most investigated of them. To evaluate these different processes requirements document and source code were the artifacts more used. Besides, different tools and techniques have been used to support these processes. Some important lessons were learned, which are in accordance to explanations of others authors.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 15
Title:

### Bridging the Gap between Multidimensional Business Problem Formulation and the Implementation of Multidimensional Data Models

Authors:

#### Franca Piazza and Friedrich Röhrs

Abstract: In data warehouse implementations the comprehensive identification of user requirements is a critical success factor. The translation of business problems into conceptual data models is very challenging and currently there are no information systems that assist in these tasks. In this research, we therefore elaborate on the challenges in that specific area and develop an information system to gather information needs and automatically transform them into conceptual multidimensional data models. We then demonstrate the use of the information system within the domain of Human Resource Management.

Paper Nr: 16
Title:

### Adaptive Virtual Enterprise Process Management - Perspective of Cloud-based Data Storage

Authors:

#### Ahm Shamsuzzoha, Sven Abels and Petri Helo

Abstract: This paper presents research outcomes on formation and operation management of virtual enterprises (VE). A VE is considered as a temporary alliance of manufacturing companies with the objective to exploit fast-changing business opportunities and to meet demands of globalized markets. In the operational phase of the VE, its collaborative member companies - which are geographically distributed and organizationally independent, cooperate with each other to execute different essential business processes. Keeping this business objective in mind, this paper proposes an integration framework of VE, where necessary data exchange and management among the partner companies are monitored and controlled by the help of cloud-based data repository system. The cloud-based data storage system which provides the necessary data storage and retrieval facilities to execute the VE processes is elaborated within this research scope. A case example is also presented that highlights required interfacing and adaptation of the essential VE business processes with the help from cloud-based data storage and retrieval system.

Paper Nr: 48
Title:

### An Enterprise-ontology based Conceptual-modeling Grammar for Representing Value Chain and Supply Chain Scripts

Authors:

#### Wim Laurier and Geert Poels

Abstract: In business modeling the focus is shifting from the enterprise to the supply chain as the prime context. Contemporary business modeling grammars should allow each enterprise taking part in a supply chain to develop its own information system and at the same time support the creation of system interoperability and information sharing amongst business partners in the supply chain. This paper presents a conceptual modeling grammar for representing business scripts in a way that is observer-independent. That is, rather than presenting value chain information from the perspective of any partner in the supply chain (e.g., enterprise, supplier, customer, customer’s customer, supplier’s supplier) or from a completely neutral third party. This observer-independent conceptual-modeling grammar, which is given strength by grounding it in the mature Resource-Event-Agent model, is shown to represent information about business phenomena of diverse supply chain partners such that it can be integrated across enterprise boundaries.

Paper Nr: 58
Title:

### Data Location Optimization Method to Improve Tiered Storage Performance

Authors:

#### Shinichi Hayashi and Norihisa Komoda

Abstract: We propose a new method for tiered storage and evaluate the characteristics of the method. In this method, a fast tier is divided into two areas, and the data in each area is managed on the basis of two input/output (I/O) measurement periods. When I/Os to these areas increase, the proposed method allocates frequently accessed areas to a higher tier in advance, therefore, improving the total system I/O performance. When frequently accessed areas rarely move, the proposed method is the most effective and improves the total system I/O performance by up to 30.4%.

Paper Nr: 71
Title:

### ETL Standard Processes Modelling - A Novel BPMN Approach

Authors:

#### Bruno Oliveira and Orlando Belo

Abstract: ETL systems modelling have been a topic quite explored by researchers in Data Warehousing. However, we believe that there isn’t yet a convinced and simply approach that provides the necessary bridges to validate conceptual and logical models and testing them before its real implementation. In this work we explore the use of BPMN for ETL conceptual modelling, presenting an extension to the BPMN 2.0 meta-model and notation to support modelling and visualization of ETL activities. We intend to provide a set of BPMN meta-models especially designed to map standard ETL processes, providing the necessary bridges to translate conceptual models into their correspondent implementation testing correctness and effectiveness of its execution. For this particular work, we specially designed a standard ETL process – Change Data Capture based on log files – to demonstrate the viability and effectiveness of the approach presented.

Paper Nr: 85
Title:

Authors:

Paper Nr: 106
Title:

### A New Relational Spatial OLAP Approach for Multi-resolution and Spatio-multidimensional Analysis of Incomplete Field Data

Authors:

#### Mehdi Zaamoune, Sandro Bimonte, François Pinet and Philippe Beaune

Abstract: Integrating continuous spatial data into SOLAP systems is a new research challenge. Moreover, representation of field data at different scales or resolutions is often mandatory for an effective analysis. Thus, in this paper, we propose a logical model to integrate spatial dimensions representing incomplete field data at different resolutions in a classical SOLAP architecture.

Paper Nr: 108
Title:

### A Library to Support the Development of Applications that Process Huge Matrices in External Memory

Authors:

#### Jaqueline A. Silveira, Sallles V. G. Magalhães, Marcus V. A. Andrade and Vinicius S. Conceição

Abstract: This paper presents a new library, named TiledMatrix, to support the development of applications that process large matrices stored in external memory. The library is based on some strategies similar to cache memory management and its basic purpose is to allow that an application, originally designed for internal memory processing, can be easily adapted for external memory. It provides an interface for external memory access that is similar to the traditional method to access a matrix. The TiledMatrix was implemented and tested in some applications that require intensive matrix processing such as: computing the transposed matrix and the computation of viewshed and flow accumulation on terrains represented by elevation matrix. These application were implemented in two versions: one using TiledMatrix and another one using the Segment library that is included in GRASS, an open source GIS. They were executed on many datasets with different sizes and, according the tests, all applications ran faster using TiledMatrix than Segment. In average, they were 7 times faster with TiledMatrix and, in some cases, more than 18 times faster. Notice that processing large matrices (in external memory) can take hours and, thus, this improvement is very significant.

Paper Nr: 127
Title:

### Ontology in the Core of Information Management - Information Management in Infrastructure Building

Authors:

#### Irina Peltomaa and Esa Viljamaa

Abstract: Information explosion sets challenges for companies but on the other hand offers opportunities to achieve competitive advantage through successful information management. Semantic interoperability solutions and ontologies especially, offer a powerful tool for information management. Ontologies provide a way to integrated disparate information sources in complex environment. Large scale infrastructure building process is extremely challenging assignment which successful follow through requires tool for effective information management. Earlier research presented a prototype implementation called Dynamic Site Control Centre (DSCC) for road construction process management. In this paper the formation and structure of ontology for the prototype implementation is described.

Paper Nr: 158
Title:

### QEF-LD - A Query Engine for Distributed Query Processing on Linked Data

Authors:

#### Regis Pires Magalhães, José Maria Monteiro, Vânia M. P. Vidal, José A. F. de Macêdo, Macedo Maia, Fábio Porto and Marco A. Casanova

Abstract: Linked data applications express integrated views using the SPARQL query language. A SPARQL federated query is submitted to a query engine that processes it over the distributed SPARQL endpoints. However, achieving an efficient execution of such a SPARQL federated query is hard. This is mainly due to the fact that query processors have little or no statistical information about the data stored at the endpoints. Moreover, the endpoints, usually, are autonomous and unstable. This paper presents QEF-LD, a query engine that enables the efficient execution of federated queries over multiple Linked Data sources. Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of QEF-LD when compared to available federated query engines.

Paper Nr: 168
Title:

### Adapting OLAP Analysis to User’s Constraints through Semantic Hierarchies

Authors:

#### Fadila Bentayeb and Rym Khemiri

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to provide a personalized on-line aggregate operator, namely PRoCK (Personalized Rollup operator with Constrained K-means), based on data mining techniques. The use of data mining techniques, and more precisely constrained K-means clustering method, helps to discover new grouping sets with respect to users requirements. In the context of data warehouses, PRoCK allows to adapt dimension hierarchies to the user constraints. Indeed, applied on a given dimension hierarchy instances, constrained k-means clustering method gives a new natural classification. The obtained clustering results constitute a new hierarchy level semantically richer, namely personalized level on which user may elaborate more sophisticated OLAP analysis. PRoCK is integrated inside Oracle RDBMS (Relational DataBase Management System) and we have carried out some experimentation which validated the relevance of our operator.

Paper Nr: 182
Title:

### A Novel Method for Similarity Search over Meteorological Time Series Data based on the Coulomb’s Law

Authors:

#### Claudinei Garcia de Andrade, Marcela Xavier Ribeiro, Cristiane Yaguinuma and Marilde Terezinha Prado Santos

Abstract: Several areas of knowledge use systematic and controlled observation, obtained from measurements taken at regular intervals, as a tool for behavioral analysis of phenomena, such as meteorology, which uses the observations to predict the climate behavior. Furthermore, with the advance of technology, the instruments used to measure observations have grown dramatically and the amount of data available for analysis has become greater than the ability to analyze them. In this context, this paper aims to propose a method, based on the principle of Coulomb's Law, for similarity search in time series and thus discovering intrinsic knowledge from these data. Experimental results conducted on climatic data of Brazilian cities and the sea surface temperature showed that the proposed method outperforms traditional methods on performance and accuracy and it is promising for finding similarity in series.

Paper Nr: 187
Title:

### A Statistical Decision Tree Algorithm for Data Stream Classification

Authors:

#### Mirela Teixeira Cazzolato, Marcela Xavier Ribeiro, Cristiane Yaguinuma and Marilde Terezinha Prado Santos

Abstract: A large amount of data is generated daily. Credit card transactions, monitoring networks, sensors and telecommunications are some examples among many applications that generate large volumes of data in an automated way. Data streams storage and knowledge extraction techniques differ from those used on traditional data. In the context of data stream classification many incremental techniques has been proposed. In this paper we present an incremental decision tree algorithm called StARMiner Tree (ST), which is based on Very Fast Decision Tree (VFDT) system, which deals with numerical data and uses a method based on statistics as a heuristic to decide when to split a node and also to choose the best attribute to be used in the test at a node. We applied ST in four datasets, two synthetic and two real-world, comparing its performance to the VFDT. In all experiments ST achieved a better accuracy, dealing well with noise data and describing well the data from the earliest examples. However, in three of four experiments ST created a bigger tree. The obtained results indicate that ST is a good classifier using large and smaller datasets, maintaining good accuracy and execution time.

Paper Nr: 199
Title:

### Enhancement of Generalized Earliest Deadline First Policy

Authors:

Abstract: Scheduling transactions in real-time database systems (RTDBSs) is more complex than scheduling tasks in real-time systems. In fact, the RTDBS must guarantee the database logical consistency, on one hand, and it must schedule the transactions in order to meet their deadlines, on the other hand. The main policy used to schedule transactions in RTDBSs is Earliest Deadline First (EDF). However, it is well-known that EDF is not efficient for scheduling transactions in overload conditions. Consequently, different scheduling protocols: AED, AEVD, APP, AEDF-Co, GEDF... were proposed to improve the system performances in firm RTDBSs, i.e. late transactions are considered useless. Generalized Earliest Deadline First (GEDF) is a new scheduling protocol in which transaction priority is assigned according to both deadlines and a parameter, called SPriority, which expresses the importance of transactions. In this paper, an RTDBSs analysis is presented. The accuracy of GEDF scheduling policy and the influence of database workload on the system performances is investigated. This study enabled us to describe the complete behavior of the transaction success ratio. Moreover, based on intensive simulations, we have derived the optimal values of the system parameters which improve the success ratio without modifying GEDF protocol.

Paper Nr: 230
Title:

### A Delta Oriented Approach to the Evolution and Reconciliation of Enterprise Software Products Lines

Authors:

#### Gleydson Lima, Jadson Santos, Uirá Kulesza, Daniel Alencar and Sergio Vianna Fialho

Abstract: Over the last years, software product line engineering has been applied and adopted by different companies. Existing software product line approaches promote the development of a centralized infrastructure of core assets that addresses the common features and provides variation points to the integration of the variable features of the SPL. In the context of distributed development of enterprise information systems, there are several scenarios where the adoption of these centralized approaches is not enough to accommodate the several requests for the integration of new features and maintenance of existing ones. In such scenarios, the SPL engineering team needs to fork the SPL core assets in order to address the customer needs and due to the marked pressure. In this paper, we propose a delta-oriented approach that promotes the reconciliation of software product lines that are independently evolved. Our approach allows: (i) the automated detection of feature conflicts of the SPLs independently evolved; and (ii) the resolution and merge of such feature conflicts.

Paper Nr: 256
Title:

### Multiple Clicks Model for Web Search of Multi-clickable Documents

Authors:

#### Léa Laporte, Sébastien Déjean and Josiane Mothe

Abstract: This paper presents a novel document relevance model based on clickthrough information. Compared to the models from the literature we consider the case when documents can be clicked several times in a given search session. This case occurs more and more frequently, specifically for multi-clickable documents such as maps in location search enginess. Considering a real system query log, we evaluate our model and show that SVM can learn with fewer errors and with better MAP when the various types of clicks are considered in the model.

Paper Nr: 258
Title:

### Data Exchange between Relational Knowledge Bases in the Web of Data

Authors:

Abstract: An important component of the Web of Data is formed by data originally stored in relational databases. The relational data along with its schemes and integrity constraints is translated into a knowledge base, that we call a {\it relational knowledge base} (RKB), residing on the Web. It is important to preserve semantics in data-to-knowledge transformation, as well as in knowledge-to-knowledge exchange between two RKBs. We discuss these issues and propose an algorithm for checking whether a mapping between two RKBs is semantics preserving. The algorithm is based on the chase procedure.

Paper Nr: 263
Title:

### Integrating Distributed Data Bases in a Semantic Framework - The K-Metropolis Project

Authors:

#### Daniela Giordano, Alfredo Torre, Salvatore Alessi, Alfio Costanzo and Alberto Faro

Abstract: This paper presents how data integration is obtained in K-Metropolis, i.e. a project inspired by the Connected Government framework and supported by the Regional Government of Sicily that aims at integrating data residing on personal, commercial and municipal databases of different organizations. In response to the user queries, K-Metropolis suggests the most suitable services by a decision support system illustrated in previous works using all the data available at urban level. E-payment of the recommended commercial services is supported. On request, e-government certificates are provided to the mobile users. When needed, the data and certificates are displayed on a Google Maps based interface. In a companion paper we show how K-Metropolis is able to display on a more powerful GIS not only geo-referenced data of the public services but also thematic drawings that further qualify these data.

Paper Nr: 44
Title:

### A Rule Induction with Hierarchical Decision Attributes

Authors:

#### Chun-Che Huang, Shian-Hua Lin, Zhi-Xing Chen and You-Ping Wang

Abstract: Hierarchical attributes are usually predefined in real-world applications and can be represented by a concept hierarchy, which is a kind of concise and general form of concept description that organizes relationships of data. To induct rules from the qualitative and hierarchical nature in data, the rough set approach is one of the promised solutions in data mining. However, previous rough set approaches induct decision rules that contain the decision attribute in the same hierarchical level. In addition, comparison of the reducts using the Strength Index (SI), which is introduced to identify meaningful reducts, is limited to same number of attributes. In this paper, a hierarchical rough set (HRS) problem is defined and the solution approach is proposed. The proposed solution approach is expected to increase potential benefits in decision making.

Paper Nr: 97
Title:

### Deriving the Conceptual Model of a Data Warehouse from Information Requirements

Authors:

#### Natalija Kozmina, Laila Niedrite and Maksims Golubs

Abstract: Business requirements are essential for developing any information system, including a data warehouse. However, requirements written in natural language may be imprecise. This paper offers a model for business requirement formalization according to certain peculiarities of elements of multidimensional models, e.g. the distinction between quantifying and qualifying data. We also propose an algorithm that generates candidate data warehouse schemas and is based on distinguishing data warehouse schema elements in formal requirements. Then, resulting schemas are processed by a semi-automated procedure in order to obtain a data warehouse schema that matches business requirements best of all.

Paper Nr: 131
Title:

### Adding Recommendations to OLAP Reporting Tool

Authors:

#### Natalija Kozmina

Abstract: In this paper an example of applying the recommendation component of OLAP reporting tool developed and put to operation at the University is presented. To construct report recommendations in the above-mentioned tool content-based methods are employed. Analyzing user activity and taking advantage of data about user preferences for data warehouse schema elements existing reports that potentially may be interesting to the user are distinguished and recommended. The approach for recommending reports is composed of two methods – cold-start and hot-start. The cold-start method is employed, if a user is either new to the system or classified as passive, while the hot-start method is applied for active system users. Both methods are implemented in OLAP reporting tool. The recommendation component of the OLAP reporting tool is presented, and different recommendation modes are described.

Paper Nr: 140
Title:

### Pervasive Information Systems to Intensive Care Medicine - Technology Acceptance Model

Authors:

#### Jorge Aguiar, Filipe Portela, Manuel Filipe Santos, José Machado, António Abelha, Álvaro Silva, Fernando Rua and Filipe Pinto

Abstract: The usability of information systems in critical environments like Intensive Care Units (ICU) is far than the expected and desirable. Typically, ICUs have a set of not integrated information silos and a high number of data recorded in paper. Whenever ICU professionals need to make a decision they have to deal with a high number of data sources containing useful information. Unfortunately, they can't use those sources due to the difficulty of evaluating them in a correct time. Pervasive Intelligent Decision Support Systems (PIDSS), operating automatically and in real-time, can be used to improve the decision making if they are suited to the requirements of the ICU. In this work a PIDSS have been assessed in terms of quality and user acceptance making use of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). TAM proved to be very useful when combined with Delphi method features to involve the professionals and to make the system usable.

Paper Nr: 175
Title:

### On-demand Data Integration for Decision-making Applications

Authors:

#### Jānis Grabis and Jānis Kampars

Abstract: Decision-making efficiency depends upon timely availability of appropriate data. On-demand data integration from web based data sources provides an attractive solution to data gathering. The two major challenges associate with on-demand data integration are selection of appropriate data services and efficient implementation of the data integration process. In this paper, it is proposed to use service’s business value as a service selection criterion and to elaborate a lightweight method for XML based definition of the integration processes. The business value driven approach implies that services are selected according to their impact on quality of decisions made rather than solely according to their QoS characteristics. The data integration process definition methods partitions the data integration process into atomic data integration tasks, thus allowing for high level of data retrieval parallelization, accommodating data interdependencies and enabling error recoverability without delaying the whole data integration process. The data integration methods are evaluated using a case study, which investigates on-line decision making at a taxi company.

Paper Nr: 196
Title:

### A Grid based Medical Image Retrieval System using Alchemi

Authors:

#### F. Maghraby, H. M. Faheem, M. Roushdy and M. Amoon

Abstract: This paper proposes an approach to perform retrieval process on medical image databases by extracting semantic information from the dataset values of the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) format which produces a set of images relevant to the given query. Image retrieval in general has the goal to allow for the retrieval of similar images over very heterogeneous image collections to help the diagnostic process. With modern radiology, departments produce tens of thousands of images per day. It is apparent that infrastructures are required to treat this large amount of data. Grid technologies are among those approaches deployed to make computing power available to large-scale research projects. Often, the goal is to have a very large number of resources in various locations that can be shared for performing computationally intensive tasks. Grid computing has the potential to help computer science researchers in medical institutions to better use an existing infrastructure. It shows that particularly computationally–intensive tasks such as the extraction of features from large image databases can be performed much faster. Alchemi framework has been deployed in this paper to provide grid-based environment .Speeding up the retrieval process was one of the major achievements of this work.

Paper Nr: 205
Title:

### Classification of Hepatitis Patients and Fibrosis Evaluation using Decision Trees and Linear Discriminant Analysis

Authors:

#### Romasa Qasim and Rashedur M Rahman

Abstract: In this paper we try to solve the challenge presented by the Chiba University and Hospital, Japan. Learning from the available liver biopsy data, the type of hepatitis of a test patient is found out without performing patient’s liver biopsy. The degree of liver fibrosis is also determined without performing biopsy. It is observed that for hepatitis type classification, linear discriminant classification performed well, and for finding the degree of liver fibroses decision tree’s results are encouraging. Later, the obtained decision tree is used to find out whether the interferon therapy, taken by set of patients, is effective or not. Result shows that linear discriminant analysis best suits to classify the type of hepatitis. However, to find the stage of fibrosis, decision tree performs well. The research finding reveals the fact that interferon therapy either reduces the liver fibroses level or does not let it increase from the diagnosed level.

Paper Nr: 223
Title:

### Clustering using Hypergraph for P2P Query Routing - Simulation and Evaluation

Authors:

#### Anis Ismail, Mohammad Hajjar, Mohamed Quafafou, Nicolas Durand and Mazen El Sayed

Abstract: Peer-to-peer overlay networks offer a flexible architecture for decentralized data sharing. In P2P schema-based systems, each peer is a database management system in itself, ex-posing its own schema. In such a case, the main objective is the efficient search across peer databases by processing each incoming query without overly consuming bandwidth. The usability of these systems depends on efficient and effective routing of content-based queries is an emerging problem in P2P networks. This work was attended to motivate the use of mining algorithms in the P2P context to improve the efficiency of such methods. Our proposed method combines clustering and hypergraphs. We use ECCLAT to build approximate clustering and discovering meaningful clusters with slight overlapping. We use the algorithm MTMINER to extract all minimal transversals of a hypergraph (clusters) for query routing. The set of clusters improves the robustness in queries routing mechanism and scalability in P2P Network. Our experimental results prove that our method generates impressive levels of performance and scalability with respect to important criteria such as response time, precision and recall.

Paper Nr: 234
Title:

### Object-oriented Real-time Database Design based on Description Logics

Authors:

#### Zied Ellouze, Nada Louati and Rafik Bouaziz

Abstract: This paper proposes a Description Logics based data model of a real-time object-oriented database. It allows the modeling of structural and behavioral aspects related to the objects in a real-time database. This model provides designers a data model where they can specify both temporal aspects of data and timing constraints on transactions as well as concurrency control mechanisms.

Paper Nr: 235
Title:

### Contextualized Access to Electronic Health Records - Application to Hospital Interoperability

Authors:

#### Belén Prados-Suárez, Carlos Molina, Miguel Prados De Reyes and Carmen Peña Yañez

Abstract: Everyday more hospitals develop their own Electronic Health Record (EHR) Systems to improve the accessibility to the information on it. There are some standards and proposals to homogenize the structure of these EHR, but they use to be so generic, that the final EHR structure has so many particularities that is different in each hospital. This situation has created a huge problem of interoperability, since Hospital Information Systems (HIS) are not capable of communicating nor understanding each other. At this point it seems very difficult that all the Hospital Information Systems change their EHR structures into a common one, to get this communication capability. Proposals to solve this issue require to create a common EHR or to translate all the existing EHR structures into a common one, and both cases seem to be unapproachable. This is why we propose a different approach based on the contextualized access to the information. The underlying idea is that the assistance acts, i.e. situations or contexts, where the information is acceded, as well as the data required for each, i.e pertinent information, is almost the same independently of the hospital where you are. Hence, it is not necessary to establish a correspondence between the EHRs, we only need to identify the context of the extern access and retrieve and send the information pertinent to it. In addition, our proposal also allows the adaptation to the needs of information of each medical doctor in each Hospital, as well as solves the problem of EHR fragmentation.

Paper Nr: 245
Title:

### GReAT - A Model for the Automatic Generation of Text Summaries

Authors:

#### Claudia Gomez Puyana and Alexandra Pomares Quimbaya

Abstract: The excessive amount of available narrative texts within diverse domains such as health (e.g. medical records), justice (e.g. laws, declarations), assurance (e.g. declarations), etc. increases the required time for the analysis of information in a decision making process. Different approaches of summary generation of these texts have been proposed to solve this problem. However, some of them do not take into account the sequentiality of the original document, which reduces the quality of the final summary, other ones create overall summaries that do not satisfy the end user who requires a summary that is related to his profile (e.g. different medical specializations require different information) and others do not analyze the potential duplication of information and the noise of natural language on the summary. To cope these problems this paper presents GReAT a model for automatic summarization that relies on natural language processing and text mining techniques to extract the most relevant information from narrative texts focused on the requirements of the end user. GReAT is an extraction based summary generation model which principle is to identify the user’s relevant information filtering the text by topic and frequency of words, also it reduces the number of phrases of the summary avoiding the duplication of information. Experimental results show that the functionality of GReAT improves the quality of the summary over other existing methods.

Paper Nr: 246
Title:

### From Relational Databases to Ontology-Based Databases

Authors:

#### Hamaz Kamal and Benchikha Fouzia

Abstract: Nowadays, the volume of data used in an information system grows rapidly. Additionally, enterprise information systems are more open to distributed environments and platforms. Thus, the need for interoperability between the different underlying data sources increases considerably. Therefore, data storage should consider storing data as well as the semantic of it in a single database. To overcome this problem, Ontology-Based Databases seem to be a good choice to replace legacy databases. In this sense, this paper proposes a reverse engineering approach which transforms a relational database to an ontology. The extracted ontology is enriched with more semantics by mean of external domain ontology. Finally the ontology and data are stored in one of the existing specific architectures for Ontology-Based Databases.

Paper Nr: 259
Title:

### Design of Complex Spatio-multidimensional Models with the ICSOLAP UML Profile - An Implementation in MagicDraw

Authors:

#### Sandro Bimonte, Kamal Boulil, Francois Pinet and Myoung-Ah Kang

Abstract: Spatial Data Warehouse and SOLAP systems allow analyzing huge volume of georeferenced data. SOLAP applications are usually complex needing advanced static and dynamic modelling properties. In particular, SOLAP applications require: multi-granular measures and complex aggregations based on aggregate functions depending on dimensions, hierarchies and levels. In this demo paper, motivated by the lack of conceptual spatio-multidimensional models based on standard languages and supporting such complex modelling requirements, we present a new UML profile for complex spatial data cubes. We implement our profile in the commercial CASE tool called MagicDraw. Using a real environmental case study, we show the theoretical and technical effectiveness of our proposal.

Paper Nr: 260
Title:

### Integrated Data Management - A Case Study in Heterogeneous Data Sources in Brazilian Government

Authors:

#### Sergio Assis Rodrigues, Marlon Alves, Allan Freitas Girão, Ricardo Silva, Miriam Chaves and Jano Moreira de Souza

Abstract: Typically, governments deal with huge masses of data generated by a variety of agencies at different hierarchical levels. Generally, this information is organized into different data sources resulting from legacy and heterogeneous systems. This lack of integration leads to management difficulties, since without a set of consolidated information; decisions are made lacking the proper grounding. Therefore, this work presents two initiatives of integrating data, based on service oriented architecture, from heterogeneous sources in the Brazilian Government aiming at better management and information usage.

Paper Nr: 280
Title:

### Toward the Design of a Generic Model of Interoperability for SIEC - SIEC: Eco-design Information System

Authors:

#### Mengqiang Yang, Mongi Smati, Khalil Khalifa, Slimane Hammoudi, Olivier Beaudoux, Olivier Camp and Frédéric Saubion

Abstract: Faced with the need to take into account environmental impacts, life cycle analysis (LCA) should emerge as an engine for innovation and eco-design. It is clear that there are many barriers to their deployment. There is thus a need for tools to facilitate their integration in business projects. These LCA tools must be compatible with different existing information systems. In addition, it is also necessary that the coupling of the different data sources helps to make decisions. This article shows the requirements of the company ACV Plus in terms of interoperability and HCI (Human-computer Interaction) in order to make its Siec software easily adaptable to various business sectors. Different peripheral tools have been developed to define data exchange formats and meet specific needs. This research aims to develop a generic bus in order to have easier process maintenance and avoid costly development for each new situation. Two PhD thesis have focused on the HCI aspects and on interoperability aspects. More generally, our project aims to develop a new system with interoperable design and management tools that can help any customer in the definition of its environmental projects and eco-design.

Paper Nr: 302
Title:

### Classification Model using Contrast Patterns

Authors:

#### Hiroyuki Morita and Mao Nishiguchi

Abstract: A frequent pattern that occurs in a database can be an interesting explanatory variable. For instance, in market basket analysis, a frequent pattern is used as an association rule for historical purchasing data. Moreover, speciﬁc frequent patterns as emerging patterns and contrast patterns are a promising way to estimate classes in a classiﬁcation problem. A classiﬁcation model using the emerging patterns, Classiﬁcation by Aggregating Emerging Patterns(CAEP) has been proposed (Dong et al., 1999) and several applications have been reported. It is a simple and effective method, but for some practical data, it can be computationally costs to enumerate large emerging patterns or may cause unpredicted cases. We think that there are two major reasons for this. One is emerging patterns, which are powerful when constructing a predictive model; however, they are not able to cover frequent transactions. Because of this, some of the transactions are not estimated, and the accuracy of the estimation becomes poor. Another reason is the normalization method. In CAEP, scores for each class are normalized by dividing by the median. It is a simple method, but the score distribution is sometimes biased. Instead, we propose the use of the z − score for normalization. In this paper, we propose a new, CAEP-based classiﬁcation model, Classiﬁcation by Aggregating Contrast Patterns (CACP). The main idea is to use contrast patterns instead of emerging patterns and to improve the normalizing method. Our computational experiments show that our method, CACP, performs better than the existing CAEP method on real data.

## Area 2 - Artificial Intelligence and Decision Support Systems

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 160
Title:

### Updating Strategies of Policies for Coordinating Agent Swarm in Dynamic Environments

Authors:

#### Richardson Ribeiro, Adriano F. Ronszcka, Marco A. C. Barbosa, Fábio Favarim and Fabrício Enembreck

Abstract: This paper proposes strategies for updating action policies in dynamic environments, and discusses the influence of learning parameters in algorithms based on swarm behavior. It is shown that inappropriate choices for learning parameters may cause delays in the learning process, or lead the convergence to an un-acceptable solution. Such problems are aggravated in dynamic environments, since the fit of algorithm pa-rameter values that use rewards is not enough to guarantee a satisfactory convergence. In this context, strat-egy-updating policies are proposed to modify reward values, thereby improving coordination between agents operating within dynamic environments. A framework has been developed which iteratively demonstrates the influence of parameters and updating strategies. Experimental results are reported which show that it is possible to accelerate convergence to a consistent global policy, improving the results achieved by classical approaches using algorithms based on swarm behavior.

Paper Nr: 189
Title:

### A Decision-Guided Energy Framework for Optimal Power, Heating, and Cooling Capacity Investment

Authors:

#### Chun-Kit Ngan, Alexander Brodsky, Nathan Egge and Erik Backus

Abstract: We propose a Decision-Guided Energy Investment (DGEI) Framework to optimize power, heating, and cooling capacity. The DGEI framework is designed to support energy managers to (1) use the analytical and graphical methodology to determine the best investment option that satisfies the designed evaluation parameters, such as return on investment (ROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; (2) develop a DGEI optimization model to solve energy investment problems that the operating expenses are minimal in each considered investment option; (3) implement the DGEI optimization model using the IBM Optimization Programming Language (OPL) with historical and projected energy demand data, i.e., electricity, heating, and cooling, to solve energy investment optimization problems; and (4) conduct an experimental case study for a university campus microgrid and utilize the DGEI optimization model and its OPL implementations, as well as the analytical and graphical methodology to make an investment decision and to measure trade-offs among cost savings, investment costs, maintenance expenditures, replacement charges, operating expenses, GHG emissions, and ROI for all the considered options.

Paper Nr: 227
Title:

### HyFOM Reasoner: Hybrid Integration of Fuzzy Ontology and Mamdani Reasoning

Authors:

#### Cristiane A. Yaguinuma, Walter C. P. Magalhães Jr., Marilde T. P. Santos, Heloisa A. Camargo and Marek Reformat

Abstract: Some real-world applications require representation and reasoning regarding imprecise or vague information. In this context, the appropriate combination of fuzzy ontologies and Mamdani fuzzy inference systems can provide meaningful inferences involving fuzzy rules and numerical property values. In general, this knowledge is not obtained through typical fuzzy ontology reasoning and can be relevant for some ontology reasoning tasks that depend on numerical property values. To address this issue, this paper proposes the HyFOM reasoner, which provides a hybrid integration of fuzzy ontology and Mamdani reasoning. A real-world case study involving the domain of food safety is presented, including comparative results with a state-of-the-art fuzzy description logic reasoner.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 19
Title:

### Mining Japanese Collocation by Statistical Indicators

Authors:

#### Takumi Sonoda and Takao Miura

Abstract: In this investigation, we discuss a computational approach to extract collocation based on both data mining and statistical techniques. We extend n-grams consisting of independent words and that we take frequencies on them after filtering on colligation. Then we apply statistical filters for the candidates, and compare these feature selection methods in statistical learning with each other. Five methods are evaluated, including term frequency (TF), Pairwise Mutual Information (PMI), Dice Coefficient(DC), T-Score (TS) and Pairwise Log-Likelihood ratio (PLL).We found PMI, MC and TS the most effective in our experiments. Using these we got 88 percent accuracy to extract collocation.

Paper Nr: 51
Title:

### Fuzzy-weighted Pearson Correlation Coefficient for Collaborative Recommender Systems

Authors:

#### Mohammad Yahya H. Al-Shamri and Nagi H. Al-Ashwal

Abstract: Memory-based collaborative recommender system (CRS) computes the similarity between users based on their declared ratings. The most popular similarity measure for memory-based CRS is the Pearson correlation coefficient which measures how much the two users are correlated. However, not all ratings are of the same importance to the user. The set of ratings each user weights highly differs from user to user according to his mood and taste. This will be reflected in the user’s rating scale. Accordingly, many efforts have been done to introduce weights to Pearson correlation coefficient. In this paper we propose a fuzzy weighting to the Pearson correlation coefficient which takes into account the different rating scales of different users so that the rating deviation from the user’s mean rating is fuzzified not the rating itself. The experimental results show that Pearson correlation coefficient with fuzzy weighting outperforms the traditional approaches.

Paper Nr: 55
Title:

### Cooperation Tendencies and Evaluation of Games

Authors:

#### Francesc Carreras and María Albina Puente

Abstract: Multinomial probabilistic values were first introduced by one of us in reliability and later on by the other, independently, as power indices. Here we study them on cooperative games from several viewpoints, and especially as a powerful generalization of binomial semivalues. We establish a dimensional comparison between multinomial values and binomial semivalues and provide two characterizations within the class of probabilistic values: one for each multinomial value and another for the whole family. An example illustrates their use in practice as power indices.

Paper Nr: 67
Title:

### An Agent-based Modeling for Price-responsive Demand Simulation

Authors:

#### Hongyan Liu and Jüri Vain

Abstract: With the ongoing deployment of smart grids, price-responsive demand is playing an increasingly important role in the paradigm shifting of electricity markets. Taking a multi-agent system modeling approach, this paper presents a conceptual platform for discovering dynamic pricing solutions that reflect the varying cost of electricity in the wholesale market as well as the level of demand participation, especially regarding household customers and small and medium sized businesses. At first, an agent-based meta-model representing various concepts, relations, and structure of agents is constructed. Then a domain model can be instantiated based upon the meta-model. Finally, a simulation experiment is developed for use case demonstration and model validation. The simulation is for the supplier to obtain the profit-maximizing demand curve which has such a shape that it follows the spot price curve in inverse ratio. The result suggests that this multi-agent-based construct could contribute to 1) estimating the impacts of various time-varying tariff options on peak-period energy use through simulation, before any experimental pilots can be carried out; 2) modeling the electricity retail market evolving interactions in a systematic manner; 3) inducing innovative simulation configurations.

Paper Nr: 83
Title:

### Noise Models in Inductive Concept Formation

Authors:

#### Marina V. Fomina, Alexander P. Eremeev and Vadim V. Vagin

Abstract: The problem of information generalization with account for the necessity of processing the information stored in real data arrays which may contain noise is considered. Noise models are presented, and a noise effect on the operation of generalization algorithms using the methods of building decision trees and forming production rules is developed. The results of program modeling are brought about.

Paper Nr: 126
Title:

### A Modeling Environment for Normative Multi-Agent Systems

Authors:

#### Emmanuel S. S. Freire, Robert M. Rocha Júnior and Mariela I. Cortés

Abstract: Tools to support the development of Multi-Agent Systems are essential to promote the effective utilization of the approach in the industry. More specifically, an adequate support for the modeling activity is useful to increase the productivity and contributes to the reduction of possible errors that would only be detected in execution time. This paper presents the evolution of MAS-ML tool to support the modeling of normative multi-agent systems modeled in NorMAS-ML language.

Paper Nr: 188
Title:

### Virtual Tourist Hub for Infomobility - Service-Oriented Architecture and Major Components

Authors:

#### Alexander Smirnov, Alexey Kashevnik, Nikolay Teslya and Nikolay Shilov

Abstract: Individual travellers are usually restricted in time but wish to see as many attractions as possible. The proposed approach assumes developing a system for ad hoc generation of travel plans as well as helping tourists to plan their attraction attending time and excursions depending on the context information about the current situation in the museums. The major idea of the virtual tourist hub is to arrange transportation based on the available schedules and capabilities of transportation and attraction providers, current and foreseen availability and occupancy of the available transportation means and attraction services so that all information flows are hidden “under the hood” the end-user (travelers), and only the final trip schedule is seen. The trip schedule is generated based on the context of the current situation and user preferences. The tourist logistics system members and elements are represented by sets of services provided by them. This makes it possible to replace the configuration of the logistics system with that of distributed services.

Paper Nr: 305
Title:

### JT2FIS: Java Type-2 Fuzzy Inference System - An Object-oriented Class Library for Building Java Intelligent Applications

Authors:

#### Manuel Castañón-Puga, Juan Ramón Castro and Miguel Flores-Parra

Abstract: This paper introduces a Java class library for fuzzy systems that can be used to build an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Inference System. Architecture of the system is presented and object oriented design and modules are described. We use the Water Temperature and Flow Controller as a classic example to benchmark the inputs and outputs and to show how to use it on engineering. We compare the developed library with an existing Matlab library in order to discuss the Java object oriented approach and its applications.

Paper Nr: 306
Title:

### Detecting and Explaining Business Exceptions for Risk Assessment

Authors:

#### Lingzhe Liu, Hennie Daniels and Wout Hofman

Abstract: Systematic risk analysis can be based on causal analysis of business exceptions. In this paper we describe the concepts of automatic analysis for the exceptional patterns which are hidden in a large set of business data. These exceptions are interesting to be investigated further for their causes and explanations. The analysis process is driven by diagnostic drill-down operations following the equations of the information structure in which the data are organised. Using business intelligence, the analysis method can generate explanations supported by the data.

Paper Nr: 313
Title:

### Deploying Nodes for Industrial Wireless Networks by Artificial Immune Systems Techniques

Authors:

#### P. H. G. Coelho, J. L. M. do Amaral, J. F. M. do Amaral, L. F. de A. Barreira and A. V. de Barros

Abstract: This paper proposes a node positioning scheme for wireless industrial plants by means of artificial immune systems techniques. After a brief discussion of the problem, the algorithm is described as well as some preliminary results indicating the applicability and usefulness of the approach.

Paper Nr: 39
Title:

### Technology Migration Determination Model for DRAM Industry

Authors:

#### Ying-Mei Tu and Chao-I Wang

Abstract: Due to short life cycle of DRAM industry over the past decade, the product generation and technology migration have to be quickly enhanced. When technology migration occurred, DRAM companies always used the past experiences to proceed with process changes. However, the issues are totally different particularly in the best practice of technology migration that caused the companies suffered many uncertainties. In this work, a model to determine the timing of technology migration is proposed. The model is based on technology roadmap to set the timing of migration under maximum profit condition. A stable growth trend is assumed for market demand to decide the revenue. Furthermore, the time-cost function of new generational equipment and the theory of learning curve are introduced as the factors to determine the manufacturing cost and profit. Consequentially, the best timing is determined with maximum profit.

Paper Nr: 40
Title:

### An Intelligent System for Reconstructing the Ripped-up Paper-Moneys

Authors:

#### Nan-Hsing Chiu, Chang-En Pu and Ming-Chang Hsieh

Abstract: The paper-moneys may face the problems of shreds in the unexpected accidents or human negligence. The reconstruction of ripped-up paper-moneys can demonstrate the evidences for decision makers or forensic examiners in order to exchange the complete paper-moneys. However, the reconstruction of ripped-up paper-moneys is very difficult on the basis of a lot of shreds with different distance factors that are measured from neighbouring pieces. How to identify the suitable feature weight for each distance factor is a critical issue for reconstructing the ripped-up paper-moneys. Particle swarm optimization is a search algorithm which is successfully adopted for solving many combination optimization problems in many fields. This study utilizes particle swarm optimization for exploring the proper feature weight for each distance factor to improve the reconstructed abilities. The proposed approach demonstrates the automatically reconstructing abilities which enhance the effects and efficiencies on the reconstruction of ripped-up paper-moneys.

Paper Nr: 49
Title:

### Scheduling Data Communication based Services on the Personal Mobile Devices

Authors:

#### Setia Budi and Vishv Malhotra

Abstract: Mobile devices have become more and more popular, and the services have grown in number and range. Ready access to the Internet is one of the characteristics of the mobile devices that deliver significant value for their users. However, the users are also concerned about costs and other factors related to this access. This paper describes a multi-objective model to optimally schedule a service on a mobile device that requires data communication with the external data repositories. These objectives are incomparable with each other and represent different personal and temporal needs and preferences. Thus, the objectives cannot be assigned unanimously accepted fixed weights to generate a single outcome metric. Pareto optimal solutions are used to provide the best option for determining efficient schedules.

Paper Nr: 62
Title:

### AMICO: The Asset Management for Industrial Complex Enterprise

Authors:

#### Stefano Alì, Giulio Cantali, Salvatore Cavalieri, Ferdinando Chiacchio, Liberina Guarnaccia, Fabio Scibilia and Alfio Scuderi

Abstract: Asset management plays a crucial role in productive activities of an industrial factory. Several commercial softwares exist but they generally present some limitations, among which the closed nature towards integration. The paper presents the AMICO project, a software platform conceived to overcome traditional limits of existing commercial solutions. A research investigation has preceded the definition of the system; it allowed to highlight the current state of the market related to the asset management softwares and pointed out the technological enhancements which could have been implemented. Among them, it highlighted the importance of a central information system able to synchronize information flows and activities. Thanks to a centralized architecture, powerful and innovative features like a cooperative workflow engine and an expert system has been introduced in the AMICO project.

Paper Nr: 66
Title:

### Nurse Rostering with Soft Constraints - Evidence from Chilean Mid-size Health Care Centers

Authors:

#### Ricardo Soto, Broderick Crawford, Rodrigo Bertrand and Eric Monfroy

Abstract: Nurse rostering deals with the shifts arrangements of nursing staff in the daily operation of health care centers. The design of suitable rosters for nurses is known to be particularly complex due to the number of interrelated requirements that must be considered. The literature reports a wide list of works devoted to solve such a problem. The techniques used range from classic methods such as linear programming to more modern incomplete methods such as evolutionary computing. However, most works are centered on the performance of techniques for solving well-known instances of nurse rostering. In this paper, we focus on a real case study of nurse rostering. The solution is devoted to a set of mid-size Chilean hospitals that use a very uncommon shift pattern due to proper country legal regulations. We present a new model involving hard and soft constraints that can be applied generically to any chilean health care center.

Paper Nr: 202
Title:

### ExtraWeb - An Extrinsic Task-oriented Evaluation of Webpage Extracts

Authors:

#### Patrick Pedreira Silva and Lucia Helena Machado Rino

Abstract: This paper focuses on the usefulness of extracts of webpages in Brazilian Portuguese as the means to filter information for Web users to quickly and consistently judge the relevance of search engine results. ExtraWeb, an ontology- and HTML-based summarizer, has been built aiming at providing an alternative to query-biased extracts typically made available by Web search engines. An extrinsic evaluation of ExtraWeb was carried out under a controlled experiment that retrieves webpages in Portuguese and generates a set of extracts for an Internet user to evaluate. Only the relevance judgment of the extracts was assessed. Results show that the system is promising in helping users to filter relevant webpages.

Paper Nr: 204
Title:

### Solving Planning Problems with LRTA*

Authors:

#### Raulcezar M. F. Alves and Carlos R. Lopes

Abstract: A number of new heuristic search methods have been employed in the development of planning systems over the last years. Enforced Hill Climbing (EHC) combined with a complete search strategy, such as Best First Search (BFS), is a method that has been frequently used in several AI planning systems. Although this method presents an enhanced performance when compared to alternative methods used in many of the other planning domains, it does all the same show some weaknesses. In this paper the authors propose to replace the use of EHC and BFS with LRTA*, which is a search algorithm guided by heuristics like EHC and is as complete as BFS. Moreover, the authors implemented some optimizations on LRTA*, such as a heap with a maximum capacity to store the states during the search, along with pruning of successors after state expansion. Experiments show significant improvements compared to the standard form of the FF planner, which is a representative planning system based on EHC and BFS.

Paper Nr: 213
Title:

### Integration of Decision Support Systems and Data Mining for Improved Decision Making

Authors:

#### Omar al-Ketbi and Marc Conrad

Abstract: A data mining (DM) integrated decision support system (DSS) is suggested to improve the performance of the DSS implemented in a police organisation. A prototype of the suggested system is provided. The paper provides an insight into DM-DSS integrated systems in the literature, and uses the results of the investigation as a basis for a suggested system tailored against the particularity of Abu Dhabi (AD) Police Organisation in the United Arab Emirates. It is believed that in general DM processes are demanding in terms of time and other resources. Hence, it is suggested that the process be reduced in order to accommodate to the particularity of AD Police in terms of size and current system performance. The system is perceived on this basis.

Paper Nr: 214
Title:

### Average Speed Estimation for Road Networks based on GPS Raw Trajectories

Authors:

#### Ivanildo Barbosa, Marco Antonio Casanova, Chiara Renso and José Antônio Fernandes de Macedo

Abstract: For applications involving displacements around cities, planners cannot count on moving at the legal speed limits. Indeed, the amount of circulating vehicles decreases the average speed and consequently increases the estimated time for daily trips. On the other hand, the number of available trajectories generated by GPS devices is growing. This paper presents a methodology to compute statistics about a road network based on GPS-tracked points, generated by vehicles moving around a city. The proposed methodology allows selecting the most representative data to describe how speeds are distributed along the days of week as well as along the time of the day. The results obtained may be used as an alternative to the shortest-path routing criterion for route planning.

Paper Nr: 233
Title:

### Multi-Agent System Model for Container Management Simulation

Authors:

#### Houda Zouhaier, Fahem Kebair, Frédéric Serin and Lamjed Ben Said

Abstract: This paper discusses an approach to build a multiagent system for simulating container management in a hub port logistics. The simulator has as goal to help assessing and defining container management strategies. This allows to plan and to control the management of containers while minimizing the waiting time and the parasite shifts and insuring the consistency of the performed tasks sequence. The proposed model involves the multi-point of view and the emergence of behavior specific to the theory of complex systems. The paper is structured as follows: first we present related works, then we expose the multiagent model of the simulator, after that we present the internal structure of the agents and finally we provide and discuss first implementation and results.

Paper Nr: 252
Title:

### Modelling Complex Systems using the Pliant Cognitive Map

Authors:

#### József D. Dombi and József Dombi

Abstract: Here, we present a tool for describing and simulating dynamic systems. Our starting point is the aggregation concept, which was developed for multicriteria decision making. Using a continuous logic operator and a proper transformation of the sigmoid function, we build positive and negative effects. From the input data we can calculate the output effect with the help of the aggregation operator. Our approach is similar to that of the Fuzzy Cognitive Map. We shall introduce a new technique that is more efficient than the FCM method. The applicability of PCM is discussed and simulation results are presented.

Paper Nr: 257
Title:

### IT applied to Public Lighting Management - How IT Can Improve Public Lighting Management?

Authors:

#### Nuno Seca and Fernando Moreira

Abstract: Efficiency of public lighting management is getting relevant. Due to costs reduction “obligation” some entities have been falling in the temptation of power off street lighting. Once that this procedure puts in risk people and goods’ security and considering that there are many lighting flux reduction solutions on the market it will be proposed a new approach. It was developed a prototype to allow managing of public lighting in an integrated way and based on Artificial Intelligence. Major goal is to achieve a higher level in which operational simplification can be made with significant cost reduction and operative optimization. Besides that, proposed approach, recurring to information systems’ supported on neural networks and functional layers can be used on this particular domain contributing to benefit public lighting systems in a remarkable way concerning profitability return of investment and operationality.

Paper Nr: 294
Title:

### Multiple External Representations in Remediation of Math Errors

Authors:

#### Maici Duarte Leite, Diego Marczal and Andrey Ricardo Pimentel

Abstract: The proposition of error remediation is a widely used feature in Intelligent Tutoring Systems, but the use of Multiple External Representations to assist it, is a research subject. This paper presents (or discuss) the use of Multiple External Representations contribution in error remediation in Learning Objects. To perform this study, we present an architectural model, a conceptual framework for mathematical error classification and Multiple External Representations, using a cognitive remediation for errors. Following is presented the application of contextual remediation of error based on Multiple External Representations in a Learning Object. And finally, we present the performance of students during the application of an experiment consisting of the following steps: pre-test, test and post-test.

## Area 3 - Information Systems Analysis and Specification

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 14
Title:

### Predicting Fault-proneness of Object-Oriented System Developed with Agile Process using Learned Bayesian Network

Authors:

#### Lianfa Li and Hareton Leung

Abstract: In the prediction of fault-proneness in object-oriented (OO) systems, it is essential to have a good prediction method and a set of informative predictive factors. Although logistic regression (LR) and naïve Bayes (NB) have been used successfully for prediction of fault-proneness, they have some shortcomings. In this paper, we proposed the Bayesian network (BN) with data mining techniques as a predictive model. Based on the Chidamber and Kemerer’s (C-K) metric suite and the cyclomatic complexity metrics, we examine the difference in the performance of LR, NB and BN models for the fault-proneness prediction at the class level in continual releases (five versions) of Rhino, an open-source implementation of JavaScript written in Java. From the viewpoint of modern software development, Rhino uses a highly iterative or agile development methodology. Our study demonstrates that the proposed BN can achieve a better prediction than LR and NB for the agile software.

Paper Nr: 32
Title:

### Service Call Graph (SCG) - Information Flow Analysis in Web Service Composition

Authors:

#### Ziyi Su and Frédérique Biennier

Abstract: This paper presents a method for analyzing Web Service-based dynamic business process, using a business process slicing method to capture the asset (service or information) derivation pattern, allowing to maintain providers’ policies during the full lifecycle of assets in a collaborative context. Firstly, we propose a Service Call Graph (SCG) model, extending the System Dependency Graph, to describe dependencies among partners in a business process. Analysis can be done based on SCG to group partners into sub-contexts. Secondly, for analyzing SCG, we propose two slicing strategies, namely ’asset-based’ and ’request-based’ slicing, to deal with the scenarios of both pre-processing business process scripts and on-the-fly analyzing service compositions. Security analysis can be achieved focusing on each sub-context, by examining downstream consumers’ security profiles with upstream asset providers’ policies.

Paper Nr: 84
Title:

### SourceMiner - A Multi-perspective Software Visualization Environment

Authors:

#### Glauco de F. Carneiro and Manoel Gomes de Mendonça

Abstract: In spite of the available resources provided by modern IDEs, program understanding remains as a very difficult and important task in software engineering. This paper presents a software visualization environment named SourceMiner. Implemented as an Eclipse plug-in to enhance software comprehension activities, SourceMiner is an extensible, interactive and coordinated multi-perspective environment. It is multi-perspective because it provides sets of views that allow programmers to look at the software from different points of view. It is coordinated because views are linked to each other, and consistently respond to the actions executed by the programmers on the environment. It is interactive in the sense that programmers can dynamically configure visual scenarios to better support the building of mental models. It is extensible because its architecture was designed to facilitate the inclusion of new views to the environment. This paper describes the principles behind the design of SourceMiner, and discusses how it has been used to support software comprehension activities such as the identification of code smells and the characterization of object-oriented software systems.

Paper Nr: 142
Title:

### Change Management of BPM-based Software Applications

Authors:

Abstract: Business process models are decision making tools intended to describe operations, constraints, and policies of an organisation. In this paper, we present an approach to control the evolution of Business Process Model (BPM) based software applications. We define a BPM change taxonomy and focus on the change affecting the BPMs and its impact propagation, through traceability relationships, to the software applications implementing them. From a formal point of view, our work consists of specifying a BPM meta-model using a typed attributed graph and a BPM change operations taxonomy based on graph rewriting rules. The specifications are then implemented using an integrated software change management platform appearing as a set of the Eclipse Workbench plug-ins.

Paper Nr: 146
Title:

### Concern-based Refactorings Supported by Class Models to Reengineer Object-Oriented Software into Aspect-Oriented Ones

Authors:

#### Paulo Afonso Parreira Júnior, Matheus Carvalho Viana, Rafael Serapilha Durelli, Valter Vieira de Camargo, Heitor Augustus Xavier Costa and Rosângela Aparecida Dellosso Penteado

Abstract: Reengineering Object-Oriented Software (OO) into Aspect-Oriented Software (AO) is a challenging task, mainly when it is done by means of refactorings in the code-level. The reason for it is that direct transformations from OO code to AO one involve several design decisions due to syntactic and semantic differences of both paradigms. To make this task more controlled and systematic, we can make use of concern-based refactorings supported by models. This type of refactorings concentrates on transforming broader scenarios into a set of context-dependent scenarios, rather than specific ones, as in code-level refactorings. In this paper we propose a set of concern-based refactorings that allows design decisions to be made during the reengineering process, improving the quality of the final models. Two of them are presented in more details in this paper. An example is presented to assess the applicability of the proposed refactorings. Moreover, we also present a case study, in which AO class models created based on the refactorings are compared with AO class models obtained without the aid of these refactorings. The data obtained in this case study indicated to us that the use of the proposed refactorings can improve the efficacy and productivity of a maintenance group during the process of software reengineering.

Paper Nr: 179
Title:

### Evolutionary Learning of Business Process Models from Legacy Systems using Incremental Process Mining

Authors:

#### André Cristiano Kalsing, Cirano Iochpe, Lucinéia Heloisa Thom and Gleison Samuel do Nascimento

Abstract: Incremental Process Mining is a recent research area that brings flexibility and agility to discover process models from legacy systems. Some algorithms have been proposed to perform incremental mining of process models. However, these algorithms do not provide all aspects of evolutionary learning, such as update and exclusion of elements from a process model. This happens when updates in the process definition occur, forcing a model already discovered to be refreshed. This paper presents new techniques to perform incremental mining of execution logs. It enables the discovery of changes in the process instances, keeping the discovered process model synchronized with the process being executed. Discovery results can be used in various ways by business analysts and software architects, e.g. documentation of legacy systems or for re-engineering purposes.

Paper Nr: 207
Title:

### An Approach for Modeling Real-time Requirements with SysML and MARTE Stereotypes

Authors:

#### Fabíola Gonçalves C. Ribeiro and Michel S. Soares

Abstract: The specification, analysis and design of real-time systems (RTS) are activities that are highly dependent on an effective understanding of the application domain and on the thorough representation of their basic requirements. The use of model-based approaches for the development of RTS systems tends to contribute to minimizing the complexity of the system development. UML has been used intensely in recent years for modeling requirements of real-time software. However, UML alone does not completely represent the important features associated with these systems. UML is a language that has several extension capabilities enabling the creation of specific profiles. This article will explore the use of UML profiles SysML and MARTE for the modeling of RTS software requirements, with its main area of application being the control of urban traffic. The main objective is to demonstrate the application of SysML with MARTE stereotypes, which enables the modeling and tracing of individual software requirements.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 33
Title:

### Application Engineering for Embedded Systems - Transforming SysML Specification to Simulink within a Product-Line based Approach

Authors:

#### Vanderson H. Fragal, Rogério F. Silva, Itana M. S. Gimenes and Edson A. Oliveira Júnior

Abstract: The evolution of hardware platforms has transferred a great amount of functionality to embedded software, thus increasing its complexity. Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and Software Product Line (SPL) can enhance the development of complex embedded systems by using different specification languages according to the abstraction levels and controlling variability across development. The SyMPLES approach allows the creation of SysML-based SPLs. It includes two SysML extensions, created by means of the UML profiling mechanism both to express SPL variability concepts and to associate SysML blocks to the main classes of functional blocks. This paper presents the transformation process from SysML to Simulink models. SysML models, created in the SPL application engineering activity of SyMPLES, are used to generate functional blocks and state machines in Simulink. An application example was developed for one subsystem of an autopilot board used in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, named Yapa 2 of Paparazzi project, which was studied into the context of National Institute of Science and Technology for Safety Critical Embedded Systems (INCT-SEC).

Paper Nr: 68
Title:

### F3 - From Features to Framework

Authors:

#### Matheus C. Viana, Rafael S. Durelli, Rosângela A. D. Penteado and Antônio F. do Prado

Abstract: Frameworks allow applications to be developed more efficiently and with higher quality since application functionality can be designed and implemented by reusing framework classes. However, frameworks are hard to develop, learn and use, due to their adaptive nature. The effort to develop a framework tends to be greater than an application. In this paper we propose an approach to facilitate the development of white box frameworks. In this approach, denominated From Features to Framework (F3), the domain of the framework is modeled and a set of patterns guides the developer to design and implement the framework according to the elements and rules defined in this model. An example of use of the F3 approach is also presented in this paper.

Paper Nr: 78
Title:

### Projects Characteristics Determining Suitability of Software Development Process

Authors:

#### Michel S. Soares and Joseph Barjis

Abstract: Software development is a complex engineering activity that faces many challenges. In the last three decades, software projects frequently ran over time, cost over budget, and delivered less functionalities than promised. These challenges are dominantly caused by technical and management failures. One critical challenge is that project characteristics, such as the technical and management environment, are not well-known in advance. The preposition of this paper is that knowing the characteristics of a software project will have a positive effect on three indicators that are most important for stakeholders: costs, duration, and functionalities. This preposition is discussed and validated in relation to three sources: review of the literature, analysis of lessons-learned documents of completed software projects in industry, and interviews with practitioners. This research resulted in a list of characteristics (non-exhaustive) that should be taken into account during the initial phases of a software project development, which should increase likelihood of success.

Paper Nr: 79
Title:

### Modeling Aspects in Requirements using SysML Extensions

Authors:

#### Kênia Santos de Oliveira and Michel S. Soares

Abstract: Aspects in software have been proposed and widely studied for the implementation phase of software development to solve modularization issues. Software requirements may also contain scattered and tangled concerns which needs special treatment. The separation of crosscutting concerns at the level of requirements contributes to improve the process of software development, to detect initial conflicts of interest and to improve the modularity of requirements. The purpose of this article is to use SysML to model aspects at the requirements level. This choice was made based on SysML’s specific diagram for requirements modeling. Extensions to the metamodel of the SysML Requirements diagram were proposed in order to include aspects during activities of requirements modeling. As a result, for the implementation phase of software development, aspects would have already been identified and modeled during the requirements phase.

Paper Nr: 94
Title:

### The Parameter Optimization in Multiple Layered Deduplication System

Authors:

#### Mikito Ogata and Norihisa Komoda

Abstract: This paper proposes a multiple layered deduplication system for backup operation in IT environment. The proposed system reduces the duplication in data by using a series of algorithms which are installed with different chunk sizes in descendent order. Our research defines the models and formula for the cumulative deduplication rate and processing time over multiple layers of the system, then, points out the efficiency is heavily affected by how to assign the chunk sizes in each layer in order to achieve the optimal assignment. Finally, the efficiency of the proposal is compared to a conventional single layer deduplication system to assure the improvement.

Paper Nr: 111
Title:

### Dependability Testing of MapReduce Systems

Authors:

#### João Eugenio Marynowski, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel, Taisy Silva Weber and Antonio Junior Mattos

Abstract: MapReduce systems have been widely used by several applications, from search engines to financial and commercial systems. There is considerable enthusiasm around MapReduce systems due to their simplicity and scalability. However, they lack a testing approach and framework ensuring their dependability. In this work, we propose a complete dependability testing solution for MapReduce systems. This solution is a model-based approach to generate representative fault cases, and a testing framework to automate their execution. Moreover, we introduce a new way to model distributed components using Petri Nets, and we show the promising results of the proposed testing framework, HadoopTest, on identifying faulty systems in real deployment scenarios.

Paper Nr: 120
Title:

### Perspectives on using Actor-Network Theory and Organizational Semiotics to Address Organizational Evolution

Authors:

#### Alysson Bolognesi Prado and Maria Cecilia Calani Baranauskas

Abstract: Systems design for a changing organization has long been in the research agenda of several academic and industrial communities, and still is an open problem. This paper draws on Organizational Semiotics and Actor Network Theory to delineate a method for clarifying and representing the social forces involved in organizational changes. A case study illustrates the approach in which all actors – people, technical devices and other objects –are modelled in the social level, tracing back the norms flow, their sources, enabling to negotiate the change with the appropriate stakeholders.

Paper Nr: 124
Title:

### Ontology Evolution in the Corporate Semantic Web

Authors:

#### Fatma Chamekh, Guilaine Talens and Danielle Boulanger

Abstract: We present in this paper an approach for ontology evolution in the corporate semantic web. We particularly focus on the ontology and resources evolution which are two important components of the corporate semantic web. Ontology evolves with added and updated resources. The concerned ontological entities by the resource modifications are linked to the documents. To manage dynamically changes we use the MAS paradigm. The evolution process is distributed in the different agents of the system. Each of them has a particular role.

Paper Nr: 128
Title:

### A Conceptual Framework to Classify Strategic Information Systems Planning Methodologies

Authors:

#### Hadi Kandjani, Amir Mohtarami, Amirhossein Eslami Andargoli and Reza Shokoohmand

Abstract: For many information systems executives, strategic planning for information systems continues to be a critical issue and remains a top concern of many organisations. Also, a comprehensive review of the recent IS planning literature reveals that selecting a proper methodology used in developing an information systems plan is one of the success factors related to the success of the IS planning process. Although this individual success factor should have attracted more research and discussions, there have not been enough attempts to create a framework to compare and classify strategic information systems planning methodologies to select a proper method for a specific organisation with its unique requirements. The purpose of this paper is primarily theoretical and is to propose a conceptual framework to classify strategic information systems planning methodologies to choose the suitable methodology(ies) according to the specific given requirements of an organisation.

Paper Nr: 143
Title:

### Conceptual Framework for Design of Collaborative Environments - Cultivating Communities of Practices for Deaf Inclusion

Authors:

#### Daniela de Freitas Guilhermino Trindade, Cayley Guimaraes and Laura Sanchez Garcia

Abstract: Members of the Deaf communities have been excluded for several years. There is a need for computational tools that take into account their peculiarities so that the Deaf may fulfill all their human possibilities. Even the systems that were supposedly designed for the Deaf present several problems (e.g. not in Sign Language (SL)). Communities of Practice (CP - a group of people who share some interest on a topic, and get together to better understand that topic) cultivate interactions. Interactions through collaborative activities mediated by computers should be used for social inclusion of the Deaf and Knowledge Creation (KC – a social process that encourages learning and development of skills). This article has two main objectives: first, it presents the results of an ethnographic study of a CP with Deaf and non-Deaf members to study SL. Second, the observations from the ethnographic study (based on collaboration and communication theories) allowed the researchers to determine some requirements, that are compiled and presented here as a Conceptual Framework to inform design of Inclusive Collaborative Virtual Environments (ICVE) to be used to cultivate CP for Deaf inclusion.

Paper Nr: 151
Title:

### A Meta Model for Monitoring Requirements in Cloud Environnment

Authors:

#### Rima grati, Khouloud Boukadi and Hanêne Ben-Abdallah

Abstract: Cloud computing is a promising technology where the infrastructure, platform technology and software are remotely delivered as services over the Internet. Despite the increasing interest in cloud computing, several enterprises are still reticent to fully adopt it in their business because of several unresolved difficulties. Among others, the difficulty to provide guaranteed QoS for all kind of applications is one of the major barriers for the adoption of this computing paradigm by a wider range of enterprises. To overcome this difficulty, various service monitoring approaches were proposed as a means to detect potential violations of an agreed-upon service level. These approaches, however, tackled the technical aspects of monitoring without providing for a conceptual framework where the QoS monitoring requirements can be specified. This paper highlights the need for a design-level modelization of monitoring composed web services in the cloud. It then presents a meta-model for composite web services in the cloud, that provides for the specification of QoS requirements, web service level agreements, and monitoring QoS of composite web services in the cloud.

Paper Nr: 157
Title:

### A New Metric for Multimedia Retrieval in Structured Documents

Authors:

#### Sana Fakhfakh, Mohamed Tmar and Walid Mahdi

Abstract: Most documents available in Textual Database or in Internet are strongly structured. This is the case for example for scientific papers or written documents using markup languages (HTML, XML). This information provided by the structure can be exploited by systems of information retrieval to define the granularity of elements to return in response to a request made by a user or to improve the relevance of these results. In this article, We are interested in recovering multimedia elements. Like this, we propose a new metric for multimedia retrieval in XML documents which is based on computing a geometric distance between XML nodes while taking into account kinship ties and proximities between them. This measure will introduce a new source of evidence for multimedia retrieval in structural documents which aims at finding relevant multimedia element that focus on the user information need. Experiments have been undertaken to show the effectiveness of our method.

Paper Nr: 183
Title:

### SyMPLES - A SysML-based Approach for Developing Embedded Systems Software Product Lines

Authors:

#### Rogério F. Silva, Vanderson H. Fragal, Edson A. Oliveira Junior, Itana M. S. Gimenes and Flávio Oquendo

Abstract: The evolution of hardware platforms has transferred a great amount of functionality to embedded software, thus increasing its complexity. The Software Product Line approach (SPL) has been successfully applied to the development of embedded software both to deal with complexity and to accelerate time to market. This paper contributes to enhance the application of SPL to embedded systems by extending the SysML language to include variability as well as by providing a well-defined SPL development process. The proposed approach, named SysML-based Product Line Approach for Embedded Systems (SyMPLES), includes two SysML extensions, created by means of the UML profiling mechanism both to express variability concepts and to associate SysML blocks to the main classes of functional blocks. An application example was developed for two subsystems of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) family, named Tiriba, which has been produced by the AGX Company in cooperation with the National Institute of Science and Technology for Safety-Critical Embedded Systems (INCT-SEC).

Paper Nr: 209
Title:

### Modeling the Creation of a Learning Organization by using the Learning Organization Atlas Framework

Authors:

#### Mijalce Santa and Selmin Nurcan

Abstract: In a continuously changing external environment, the learning organization can provide a competitive advantage. However, the concept has been largely criticized for the lack of guidelines and tools on how it could be developed. This undermines the opportunity for the development of the learning organization. This paper aims to contribute toward the debate on its creation by proposing a Learning Organization Atlas Framework approach. This framework comprises of the facets of the learning organization that characterize them, a Learning Organization Grid for the analysis and benchmarking of organizations, a Learning Organization Atlas that can be used for developing models of them, and a Learning Organization Road Map that includes the intentions of the organization and the strategies to achieve those intentions. With the framework and its four elements, we propose a method for modeling the learning organization and organizational change by providing embedded flexibility. The next level for research is in identifying the influence between different facets, strategy selection, and development of guidelines for models of learning organizations.

Paper Nr: 249
Title:

### Comparative Analysis of State-of-the-Art Spatial Data Warehouse Meta-models - Catching the Expressive Power of SDW Schemas!

Authors:

#### Alfredo Cuzzocrea and Robson do N. Fidalgo

Abstract: In this paper we provide a comparative analysis of the Spatial Data Warehouse Metamodel (SDWM) proposal against three state-of-the-art Spatial Data Warehouses (SDW) meta-model proposals. Results of this analysis allow us to conclude that the SDWM proposal exposes a higher expressive power of the comparison approaches, and, in addition to this, it allows us to obtain more concise and compact SDW schemas when compared with the schemas provided by the comparison approaches.

Paper Nr: 265
Title:

### A2MO and ETREOSys - Analyzing, Modeling and Validation of Enterprise Training Programs

Authors:

#### Fodé Touré, Mouna Selmi and Esma Aïmeur

Abstract: Organizations and public authorities invest substantial sums in training, but rarely have data indicating the results of this investment. Because of the difficulties related to existing models, to the lack of valid instruments and workable models, only a few organizations evaluate their training project in depth. In this paper, we propose an approach of training project evaluation, based on Business Process Management (BPM). This approach consists in Analyzing the needs, process Modelling, Monitoring the project progress and ensuring the expectation of the objectives, Optimizing the global and personal yield by a series of simulation (A2MO method). To facilitate the understanding and the use of A2MO, we develop a Business Process Management System named ETREOSys (Enterprise TRaining program Evaluation and Optimization System). A2MO ensures the alignment between training activities and enterprise business objectives. It allows training project monitoring, calculating tangible and intangible benefits of training (without additional costs). It also allows making a training projects classification according to criteria bound to enterprise and employees, to optimize training activities in order to answer the enterprise objectives and employees needs.

Paper Nr: 273
Title:

### Ontologies as Theories

Authors:

#### Marco A. Casanova, Angela Pinheiro, Jose Antonio F. Macedo, Eveline Sacramento and Vania M. P. Vidal

Abstract: This position paper argues that certain familiar ontology design problems are profitably addressed by treating ontologies as theories and by defining a set of operations that create new ontologies, including their constraints, out of other ontologies. The paper first illustrates how to use the operations in the context of ontology reuse. It goes further and shows how to take advantage of the operations to compare different ontologies, or different versions of an ontology, and to design mediated schemas in a bottom up fashion. The discussion in this position paper is backed up by a tool that implements the operations and that offers other facilities to manipulate ontologies.

Paper Nr: 276
Title:

### Applicative Approach to Information Processes Modeling - Towards a Constructive Information Theory

Authors:

#### Viacheslav Wolfengagen, Vladimir Roslovtsev, Leonid Shumsky, Artyom Bohulenkov and Artyom Sakhatskiy

Abstract: The goal of this work is to present an approach to constructive definition of information processes and objects. Our approach is based on applicative computational systems (ACS), so that both (information) processes and objects are formal entities in an ACS. We also outline the usage of π-calculus as an operational semantics for our constructive processes execution. The usage of the presented ideas in a distributed application development framework is outlined.

Paper Nr: 293
Title:

### Impressionism in Cloud Computing - A Position Paper on Capacity Planning in Cloud Computing Environments

Authors:

#### Ivan Carrera Izurieta and Cláudio Resin Geyer

Abstract: Cloud computing is a model that relies on virtualization and can lower costs to the user by charging only for the computational resources used by the application. There is a way to use the advantages of cloud computing in data-intensive applications like MapReduce and it is by using a virtual machine (VM) cluster in the cloud. An interesting challenge with VM clusters is determining the size of the VMs that will compose the cluster, because with an appropriate cluster and VM size, users will be able to take a full advantage of resources, i.e., reducing costs by using idle resources and gaining performance. This position paper is intended to bring to consideration the necessity for accurate capacity planning at user level, in order to take fully advantage of cloud resources and will focus specially for data-intensive applications users.

Paper Nr: 297
Title:

### Challenges of Critical and Emancipatory Design Science Research - The Design of Possible Worlds' as Response

Authors:

#### J. Marcel Heusinger

Abstract: Popper’s (1967) piecemeal social change' is an approach manifesting itself in science as critical and eman-cipatory (C&E) research. It is concerned with incrementally removing manifested inequalities to achieve a better' world. Although design science research in information systems seems to be a prime candidate for such endeavors, respective projects are clearly underrepresented. This position paper argues that this is due to the demand of justifying research ex post by an evaluation in practical settings. From the perspective of C&E research it is questionable if powerful actors grant access to their organization and support projects which ultimately challenge their position. It is suggested that theory development based on a synthesis of justificatory knowledge is a complementary approach that allows designing realizable responses to C&E issues–the design of possible worlds' (Lewis, 1986) as basis for C&E design science research.

Paper Nr: 31
Title:

### Organisation, and Information Systems between Formal and Informal - Continuum, Balance, Patterns, and Anti-patterns

Authors:

#### Karim Baïna

Abstract: There is no doubt that formalising information systems is of great value to an organisation. This enables, among others, business processes, rules, services and objects models to be standardized, structured, capitalized and reused. A formal information system involves a structured organisation, clearly defined roles and responsibilities and therefore a rational management. However, generalising a formalisation approach to all information system perspectives or all levels of granularity can inversely be fatal to the smooth running of the business, its management, and operation. The aim of this paper is to explore information systems formal-informal continuum, to discover and understand its characteristics, patterns, anti-patterns, and the forces participating to its equilibrium, and to propose recommendations to reach right level of formalisation.

Paper Nr: 57
Title:

### Deontic Database Constraints - From UML to SQL

Authors:

#### Pedro Nogueira Ramos

Abstract: Deontic constraints (obligations, forbiddances, violations) can be easily and explicitly represented in UML Class Diagrams. They deal with formal representation of requirements, which ideally should always be fulfilled, but can be violated, in atypical situations. In this paper we adopt and extend previous work on deontic constraints. Our contribution is the development of a tool that fully generates code based on UML Class Diagrams representation of those constraints. We overcome some limitations of previous work, and consequently we only adopt standard UML notations. Our tool (a Sybase PowerDesigner plugin) generates OCL constraints, a standard relational model, and SQL code to hold the deontic requirements. SQL is coded in views and triggers. Since we adopt a commercial tool, these enrichments will benefit any non-professional users.

Paper Nr: 81
Title:

### A Conceptual Model for Effective Early Warning Information Systems (EEWIS)

Authors:

#### Mohamed Saad Eldin, Sherif A. Mazen, Ehab E. Hassanen and Hegazy Zaher

Abstract: This paper addresses the need for effective early warning information systems (EEWIS) that are capable of predicting future crises and that can help prevent them or reduce their negative effects. The main problem facing any EWIS is the lack of effectiveness. The most effective early warning information systems are characterized by accuracy, flexibility and the ability to detect risks. Effective early warning information systems can empower communities to prepare for and confront risks and disasters. An effective EWIS should be based on a reliable and consistent model, yet the models currently available are mostly deterministic, simplified or inconsistent in application and assumption; thus making them unreliable and impractical. The goals of this paper are to provide guidelines for professionals involved in implementing effective early warning information systems, and to present a novel model for EEWIS that can be adapted to the dynamic needs of the field of crisis management and preparedness.

Paper Nr: 101
Title:

### Performance Testing of New Enterprise Applications using Legacy Load Data - A HIS Case Study

Authors:

#### Marek Miłosz

Abstract: Legacy information systems are increasingly a subject to reengineering with the progress of ICT. There are developed systems with similar features to replace those which operate. Developed software needs testing. This paper focuses on the importance of performance testing in the early stages of software development. To performance tests be credible, the appropriate load profile of the system must be used. The paper presents a method of using legacy system load of real transaction data to design performance tests for newly developed systems. The example of the hospital information system (HIS) shows the use of this method in the software development using agile methods. Presented approach allowed the early detection of performance problems of the new software.

Paper Nr: 110
Title:

### A Survey of Tools for Mapping and Synchronization of Knowledge from Legacy Systems

Authors:

#### Helio H. L. C. Monte-Alto, Lucas O. Teixeira and Elisa H. M. Huzita

Abstract: Knowledge modeling and manipulation are great challenges in the current knowledge-based systems development scenario. Recent development in the area of SemanticWeb have arisen with solutions to build intelligent information systems. However, adapting legacy systems to Semantic Web technologies and standards is not trivial and demands too much effort from developers. This paper presents a survey to find tools to ease creation, maintenance and persistence of knowledge by means of mapping between existing application or domain models and OWL ontology concepts. Such tools are intended to be used in a context-aware Global Software Development (GSD) environment using Semantic Web standards to represent context information.

Paper Nr: 136
Title:

### P-UML - A Pattern Design Language with a Formal Semantics

Authors:

#### Nadia Bouassida, Hanêne Ben-Abdallah and Moez Ali

Abstract: This paper presents and fine-tunes the P-UML design language which is a UML profile that better represents the design patterns and guides their instantiation. Then, it focuses on the definition of the formal semantics of this language in Z. The formal semantics allows a designer to prove the syntactic well-formedness of a P-UML design. In addition, it allows the verification of a design pattern’s instantiation thanks to the theorem prover Z/EVES.

Paper Nr: 148
Title:

### Software Project Management in Distributed Software Development Context

Authors:

#### Tania Fatima Calvi Tait and Elisa Hatsue Moriya Huzita

Abstract: Distributed software development (DSD) became a reality in project development involving geographically dispersed teams and brings challenges regarding to software project management (SPM). So, aspects such as infrastructure problems, local organizational culture, time zone and others become part of the concerns of software project management. This paper presents a proposition to manage software projects in DSD context including planning and controlling aspects. Particularly it deals with human resources management, risks and cost’s estimations as well as control of activities, fulfillment of deadlines and resources allocation.

Paper Nr: 153
Title:

### An Experimental Study on the Dynamic Reconfiguration of Software Projects

Authors:

#### Maurício Covolan Rosito, Marcelo Blois Ribeiro and Ricardo Melo Bastos

Abstract: Developing a software product is a complex activity that involves many uncertainties. Software projects usually experience many modifications during their execution phases. These adjustments can be understood as reconfigurations in the schedule, in the resources allocation and other design elements. The large amount of information that the project manager must deal, combined with the frequent changes in the scope and planning, makes this activity more challenging. In addition, the manager may need to consult other departments in the organization during the execution of a software project. The distinction between the specific activities in a project with activities that take part in the organization’s common activity flow can be observed. In order to contribute to the solution of the noted difficulties, it was proposed a computational model called SPIM. In this sense, this article presents the results of an experimental study related to dynamic reconfiguration of software projects, with emphasis on the integration of project management with organizational flows. A software tool was built to demonstrate and evaluate the results.

Paper Nr: 173
Title:

### Model Transformation Recommendations for Service-Oriented Architectures

Authors:

#### Dmitri Valeri Panfilenko, Katsiaryna Hrom, Brian Elvesæter and Einar Landre

Abstract: Services for service-oriented architectures can be modelled in different ways, including well-known existing OMG standard SoaML and an IBM methodology SOMA. Involving domain expert stakeholders in the system specification and development process plays an important role and is often inevitably combined with model transformations between different levels of abstraction. Recommendations for those supporting users during the modelling process along the chosen methodology can aid the development performance and thus reduce model transformation efforts. This paper shows how bidirectional model transformations between OMG MDA’s CIM and PIM levels can be enhanced through recommendations and which obstacles on the way to a comprehensive framework for model-driven development are still to overcome.

Paper Nr: 192
Title:

### Knowledge Management and Creativity in Software Engineering - The Foundations of Agility

Authors:

#### Broderick Crawford, Claudio León de la Barra, Ricardo Soto, Sanjay Misra and Eric Monfroy

Abstract: Software development is a knowledge intensive activity and its success depends on knowledge and creativity of the developers. In the last years the traditional perspective on software development is changing and agile methods have received considerable attention. Among other attributes, the agilists claim that fostering knowledge sharing and creativity is one of the keys to response to common problems and challenges of software development today. The development of new software products requires the generation of novel and useful ideas. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of knowledge management and creativity in relation with new software engineering trends. The implications of these findings are considered, and some possible directions for future research are suggested.

Paper Nr: 197
Title:

### Cross-platform Solution for Development of Mobile Applications

Authors:

#### Gatis Vitols, Ingus Smits and Oleg Bogdanov

Abstract: Mobile devices are one of the most popular devices for access to web applications. Problems that arise in development process of mobile web applications are the same as with desktop applications. One of the fundamental problems in both cases is cross platform development. At the moment three mobile application development methods can be identified: web-based, native and hybrid. When developing business applications, hybrid application development framework can be most appropriate. From evaluated hybrid application development frameworks and styling tools Adobe PhoneGap with JQuery Mobile have the highest compliance to the criteria researched in this study.

Paper Nr: 219
Title:

### Extending OCL to Specify and Validate Integrity Constraints in UML-GeoFrame Conceptual Data Model

Authors:

#### Angélica Ap. de A. Ribeiro, Sergio M. Stempliuc, Jugurta Lisboa-Filho and Italo Lopes Oliveira

Abstract: This paper describes a proposal for OCL (Object Constraint Language) by adding geographical features to assist the geographical data modeling. OCL can be used to complement the diagrams when the UML constructors do not allow the specification of all requirements related to the application domain. The objective is to complement and validate conceptual data diagrams built with constructors of the UML-GeoFrame data model, with and extended OCL used for constraint topological relationships in the data model itself and available in his diagram to access stereotypes for direct user defined constraints.

Paper Nr: 232
Title:

### Using SoaML Models and Event-B Specifications for Modeling SOA Design Patterns

Authors:

#### Imen Tounsi, Zied Hrichi, Mohamed Hadj Kacem, Ahmed Hadj Kacem and Khalil Drira

Abstract: Although design patterns have become increasingly popular, most of them are presented in an informal way. Patterns, proposed by the SOA design pattern community, are described with a proprietary informal notation, which can raise ambiguity and may lead to their incorrect usage. Modeling SOA design patterns with a standard formal notation avoids misunderstanding by software architects and helps endow design methods. In this paper, we present an approach that aims, first, to model message-oriented SOA design patterns with the SoaML language, and second to transform them to Event-B specifications. These two steps are performed before undertaking the effective coding of a design pattern providing correct by construction pattern-based software architectures. Our approach is enhanced with a tool supporting it. Specification results are imported under the Rodin platform which we use to prove model consistency.

Paper Nr: 283
Title:

### Application of Information Technology for Visualizing and Optimizing Construction Project Schedule

Authors:

#### Hyeon-Seung Kim, So-Yong Moon, Hyoun-Seok Moon and Leen-Seok Kang

Abstract: Recently, various information technologies such as VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality) are being used for visualizing construction information. Specially, BIM (Building Information Modelling) is a representative tool for IT application in construction industry. Generally, BIM uses VR and nD CAD system to visualize construction schedule data. This study develops a methodology and system to apply BIM functions using 4D CAD simulation technique for risk analysis and schedule progress monitoring in the construction industry.

## Area 4 - Software Agents and Internet Computing

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 73
Title:

### Some Insights into the Role of Social Media in Political Communication

Authors:

#### Matthias Roth, Georg Peters and Jan Seruga

Abstract: Political communication in the social media network of Twitter has enjoyed a popularity increase in recent years. This also meant that the microblogging platform Twitter is now used in different countries for political campaigns as well as political discussions. For this study we collected data from more than 1,400 politicians in three countries Australia, Germany and the U.S. through the Twitter API. This data set with nearly one million tweets is the basis for our analyses, where we compare the behavior of the politicians on Twitter regarding differences and similarities in the political context. Amongst others we compare key figures concerning the year of joining, age groups, gender, user activity, and trend topics in the named parliaments. Thus we gain insight into the political communication on Twitter in the mentioned countries.

Paper Nr: 121
Title:

### Developing and Testing a Model to Understand Relationships between e-Learning Outcomes and Human Factors

Authors:

#### Sean B. Eom and Nicholas J. Ashill

Abstract: This study applies partial least squares (PLS) to examine the effects of interactions and instructor feedback and facilitation on the students' satisfaction and their perceived learning outcomes in the context of university online courses. Independent variables included in the study are course structure, self-motivation, learning style, and interaction. A total of 397 valid unduplicated responses from students who have completed at least one online course at a university in the Midwest U.S. are used to examine the structural model. Four of the five antecedent constructs hypothesized to directly affect student/instructor interaction are significant. This research makes a critical contribution in e-learning empirical research by identifying two critical human factors that make e-learning a superior mode of instruction.

Paper Nr: 162
Title:

### Event Recommendation in Social Networks with Linked Data Enablement

Authors:

#### Yinuo Zhang, Hao Wu, Vikram Sorathia and Viktor K. Prasanna

Abstract: In recent years, social networking services have gained phenomenal popularity. They allow us to explore the world and share our findings in a convenient way. Event is a critical component in social networks. A user can create, share or join different events in their social circle. In this paper, we investigate the problem of event recommendation. We propose recommendation methods based on the similarity of an event’s content and a user’s interests in terms of topics. Specifically, we use Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to generate a topic distribution over each event and user. We also consider friend relationship and attendance history to increase recommendation accuracy. Moreover, we enable linked data as our data sources to collect contextual information related to events and users, and build an enhanced profile for them. As reliable resource, linked data is used to find structured knowledge and linkages among different knowledge. Finally, we conduct comprehensive experiments on various datasets in both academic community and popular social networking service.

Paper Nr: 255
Title:

Authors:

#### Luis M. Camarinha-Matos, Hamideh Afsarmanesh, Ana Inês Oliveira and Filipa Ferrada

Abstract: The association of services to manufactured products, leading to service-enhanced products, is an important mechanism for value creation and differentiation. This is particularly relevant in the case of complex, highly customized and long-life products. Suitable servicing in this context typically requires the collaboration among multiple stakeholders. Furthermore, the involvement of the customer is not limited to service consumption but rather includes contributions to new services design and configuration. As such, this paper contributes to the clarification of concepts and definition of a framework for collaborative business services design (co-creation) and delivery. Application examples are illustrated for the solar energy sector.

Paper Nr: 310
Title:

### Towards a Reusable Architecture for Message Exchange in Pervasive Healthcare

Authors:

#### João Luis Cardoso de Moraes, Wanderley Lopes de Souza, Luís Ferreira Pires and Antonio Francisco do Prado

Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to present a reusable architecture for message exchange in pervasive healthcare environments meant to be generally applicable to different applications in the healthcare domain. This architecture has been designed by integrating different concepts and technologies of ubiquitous computing, software agents, and openEHR archetypes, in order to provide interoperability between healthcare systems. The architecture was demonstrated and evaluated in controlled experiments that we conducted at three cardiology clinics, an analysis laboratory, and the cardiology sector of a hospital located in Marília (São Paulo, Brazil). Three applications were developed to evaluate this architecture, and the results showed that the architecture is suitable to facilitate the development of healthcare systems by offering generic and powerful message exchange capabilities. The reusable architecture speeds up the development of new applications, reducing the number of mistakes and the development time. The proposed architecture facilitates message exchanging between caregivers, contributing in this way to the development of pervasive healthcare systems that allow healthcare to be available anywhere, anytime, and to anyone.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 69
Title:

### Situation-awareness as a Key for Proactive Actions in Ambient Assisted Living

Authors:

#### Alencar Machado, Ana Marilza Pernas, Iara Augustin, Lucinéia Heloisa Thom, Leandro Krug Wives and José Palazzo Moreira de Oliveira

Abstract: With the augmentation of population's life expectancy as a whole, there is a need for intelligent applications to assist citizens in their daily activities. Ambient Assisted Living – AAL – are emerging as a way to allow technology and medical assistance to help people who need special supervision, providing support to medical emergencies. AAL are equipped with ubiquitous technologies, and use sensors as their main element for environmental data collection, providing systems with updated information. To offer personal home assis-tance, these computer-supported environments detect situations of interest such as the patient´s current health state, and proactively act to adapt the home environment accordingly to the patient´s specific needs. This paper presents results from an approach to support adaptive behavior in AAL. In particular, we discuss the design of intelligent systems for monitoring and adaptation of AAL. Additionally, we describe a middleware for the management of pervasive applications, which is capable of detecting the current situation of a citizen and identifying the most suitable action.

Paper Nr: 91
Title:

### Electronic Exercises for the Metra Potential Method

Authors:

#### Markus Siepermann, Christoph Siepermann and Richard Lackes

Abstract: The metra potential method as a special precedence diagram method is used in many scientific disciplines, e.g. in project management, date- and capacity-planning. It is a combination of graphical modelling and calculations for the duration of projects/processes. In this paper, we introduce an e-learning system that provides exercises concerning the metra potential method. Students can freely model the diagrams without restrictions and do the necessary calculations. Then, their solutions are marked automatically on the basis of a reference solution. The calculations are based on the modelling, thus consecutive faults between modelling and calculation have to be considered as well as consecutive faults only during the calculation.

Paper Nr: 123
Title:

### Proposal of an Interoperability Model for Social Security Information Systems

Authors:

#### Francisco Delgado, Salvador Oton, Raúl Julian Ruggia, Jose R. Hilera and José M. Gutiérrez

Abstract: The paper presents the most important concepts of interoperability and analyse the problems to apply interoperability in Social Security information systems. A model for apply interoperability between Social Security Institutions is presented and is proved in some scenarios. The goal is to develop standardize specifications promoting reusability and enabling to address the issues of cost and complexity in social security systems implementation. The main contributions of this paper are the proposition of an interoperability model based on the EIF’s model and taking into account characteristics and application scenarios of the Social Security domain.

Paper Nr: 208
Title:

### Internet of Things Aware WS-BPEL Business Process

Authors:

#### Dulce Domingos, Francisco Martins and Carlos Cândido

Abstract: Business process can benefit from the deployment of the Internet of Things, since they can use sensor context information to optimize their execution and to react to emergent situations in real-time. Nowadays, the WSBPEL is the de-facto standard language used to define processes through the composition of web services. However, as this language is based on the service orchestration paradigm, it complicates the way process can use context information. This paper presents a WS-BPEL extension that includes context variables. These variables maintain sensor values. Their updates are done automatically by using the publish/subscribe paradigm. In addition, to support more reactive behaviours, this extension also includes the when-then construct. To realize this extension, we use the language transformation mechanisms, so it can be as much independent as possible from the process execution engine.

Paper Nr: 220
Title:

### Seeding the Cloud with Students from Every Computer Science Undergraduate Program

Authors:

#### Joel Hollingsworth and David J. Powell

Abstract: The introduction of enterprise-level cloud computing to the computer science curriculum is necessary to remain consistent with the industry. Cloud computing is rapidly being used throughout industry and there is a current and projected shortage of IT developers with cloud computing skills. University computer science curricula need to provide cloud computing courses to prepare graduates to enter the work place. This paper describes a required cloud based enterprise-level programming course at Elon University that used free cloud based software and hardware and free training materials. This cloud based development course provides an example that could be immediately used at any university to give their students the cloud based skills needed to be successful in the IT market.

Paper Nr: 277
Title:

### Technical Trends and Challenges in Mobile Health - A Systematic Review of Recent Available Literature

Authors:

#### Daniel Antonio Callegari, Luis Carlos Jersak and Adriana Cássia da Costa

Abstract: This paper presents the state of the art from the available literature on mobile health care. The study was performed by means of a systematic review, a way of assessing and interpreting all available research on a particular topic in a given area, using a reliable and rigorous method. From an initial amount of 1,482 papers, we extracted and analysed data via a full reading of 40 (2.69$\%$) of the papers that matched our selection criteria. Our analysis since 2010 show current development in 10 application areas and present on-going trends and technical challenges on the subject. The application areas include patient monitoring, infrastructure, software architecture, modelling, framework, security, notifications, multimedia, mobile cloud computing, and literature reviews on the topic. The most relevant challenges include the low battery life of devices, multiplatform development, data transmission and security. Our study consolidates recent findings in the field and serves as a resourceful guide for future research planning and development.

Paper Nr: 309
Title:

### Towards a Pattern-based Adaptive Approach for Instructional Design based on Teacher's Pedagogical Design Scheme

Authors:

#### Jean-Pierre Clayer, Claudine Toffolon and Christophe Choquet

Abstract: Learning is changing in deep, activities of teaching practitioners have to evolve. They need to structure and formalize their internal designs as models to be implemented but do not have competences in instructional design. We propose to use patterns, semi-structured description of an expert's method for solving a recurrent problem to elicit and express theirs needs. We propose an engineering design process framework based on patterns, and pedagogical design schemes to support instructional design. A tool has been developed to support this process. We experiment a design session with two trainers of an association dedicated to back-to-work programs within an iterative co-participant design based research method.

Paper Nr: 20
Title:

### Analysis and Improvement System WebAnywhere

Authors:

#### Carla Fernanda da S. Sampaio and Luís César Martini

Abstract: This work presents the WebAnywhere system which is a screen reader for specific website for people with visual impairments. This research aims to enhance this program aimed at developing new features and functionality for the user to be able to perform blind download web files such as images and videos through the reader WebAnywhere. This project also involves testing to facilitate the use of this tool and adaptive display a consistent methodology to the context of this study.

Paper Nr: 64
Title:

### Smart Cities Architectures - A Systematic Review

Authors:

#### Gustavo H. R. P. Tomas, Welington M. da Silva, Paulo A. da M. S. Neto, Vinicius C. Garcia, Alexandre Alvaro and Kiev Gama

Abstract: The smart cities concept arises from the necessity of managing several problems caused by the unbridled population growth at urban centers. To make a city become “smart” it is needed to employ Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to access, process and deliver information according to the urban context. This information can be employed to mitigate several urban issues, such as traffic jams, high natural resource consumption, epidemias, sustainability, waste management, low quality and life expectancy of citizens, among others. Thus, the increasing need to create architectures that are able to interact with the Internet of Things, i.e., several built-in devices, appliances, sensors and actuators embedded in each urban context. This work is a systematic review regarding proposals for such architectures. After selecting the relevant approaches, we have identified a set of issues that these approaches aim to solve and some architectural patterns employed.

Paper Nr: 90
Title:

### Synaptic City - An Architectural Approach using an OSGI Infrastructure and GMaps API to Build a City Simulator

Authors:

#### Gustavo H. R. P. Tomas, Welington M. da Silva, Kiev Gama, Vinicius C. Garcia and Alexandre Alvaro

Abstract: Big cities have noticeable problems resulting from poor management of urban services. Monitoring a city gives some parameters to evaluate the performance of urban services, allowing to identify their flaws, and elaborate strategic plains to correct them. Smart cities architectures are intended to propose Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) solutions to increase service efectiveness. Considering that to establish a ICT infrastructure to support a smart city architecture is very expensive, once you have got the data and you know what urban service you will attend to, you can use a city simulator to test how the architecture will behave when facing the city’s problems. In this context we propose the Synaptic City architecture, together with a city simulator, with which we modeled a Brazilian city, Recife, Pernambuco, in order to discuss its main problems.

Paper Nr: 105
Title:

### Adapting RosettaNet B2B Standard to Semantic Web Technologies

Authors:

#### Jamel Eddine Jridi and Guy Lapalme

Abstract: This paper presents a methodology for adapting RosettaNet B2B Standard to Semantic Web technologies. We present an approach for mapping RosettaNet Partner Interface Process (PIP) descriptions defined currently with DTD or XML Schemas format to an ontological representation using an OWL/XML rendering. It has been applied to the full set of PIPs. The transfer is transparent and reaps the benefits of the formalization effort put in the XML representation. All produced RosettaNet PIPs ontologies were validated according to the XML Schema of OWL/XML Serialization and their consistency checked with a OWL Reasoner. The use of formal semantics for B2B based on ontologies ensures a better interoperability and should help overcome the problem of standards integration by the use of ontology alignment.

Paper Nr: 129
Title:

Authors:

Paper Nr: 132
Title:

### An Ontology-based Method for Sparsity Problem in Tag Recommendation

Authors:

#### Endang Djuana, Yue Xu, Yuefeng Li, Audun Josang and Clive Cox

Abstract: Tags or personal metadata for annotating web resources have been widely adopted in Web 2.0 sites. However, as tags are freely chosen by users, the vocabularies are diverse, ambiguous and sometimes only meaningful to individuals. Tag recommenders may assist users during tagging process. Its objective is to suggest relevant tags to use as well as to help consolidating vocabulary in the systems. In this paper we discuss our approach for providing personalized tag recommendation by making use of existing domain ontology generated from folksonomy. Specifically we evaluated the approach in sparse situation. The evaluation shows that the proposed ontology-based method has improved the accuracy of tag recommendation in this situation.

Paper Nr: 152
Title:

### Effect of Product Type and Recommendation Approach on Consumers’ Intention to Purchase Recommended Products

Authors:

#### Yi-Cheng Ku, Chih-Hung Chan and Chin-Sheng Yang

Abstract: Many e-stores offer product recommendation service to increase sales and customers’ satisfaction. However, the performance of recommendation system will be influenced by the consumers’ judgments on recommended products. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of product type and recommendation approach on consumers’ intention to purchase recommended products. A laboratory experiment was conducted to collect empirical data and ANCOVA was adopted to test the research hypotheses. We found that there are significant interaction effects between recommendation approach and recommended product type on consumers’ willingness to buy the recommended products and their disconfirmation of the recommended products, while the consumers’ self-monitoring degree was a covariate variable. Before experiencing the products, consumers’ willingness to buy search goods recommended by the top-N approach is significantly higher than those recommended by the collaborative-filtering recommendation approach. On the other hand, after experiencing the products, consumers’ disconfirmation of the experience goods recommended by the top-N approach is also significantly higher than those recommended by the collaborative-filtering recommendation approach. Besides, among the products recommended by the top-N approach, the disconfirmation of experience goods is significantly higher than that of search goods. The results of this study provide valuable implications for researchers and practitioners.

Paper Nr: 180
Title:

### Formalization of the User Centric SOA Approach - Implementation and End User Satisfaction Evaluation

Authors:

#### Meriem Benhaddi, Karim Baïna and El Hassan Abdelwahed

Abstract: User-centric SOA is a new paradigm allowing unskilled end users to compose services to create new one. Mashups represent new agile and quick ways to compose and integrate structured and unstructured resources, from different types existing on the web. Mashups emerged as a new way to democratize the SOA and realize the user-centric SOA; However, Mashups are emerging applications, and thus consist of immature, non intuitive and non formalized area. In this paper, we formalize the user-centric SOA development by proposing a new cloud-based architecture for user-centric SOA platforms, and by introducing a new rich integration language based on the advanced Enterprise Integration Patterns (EIPS). We also propose a new intuitive and self-explanatory semantic methodology and interaction model for end users services integration. Through these contributions, we give the promise of realizing the user-centric SOA.

Paper Nr: 191
Title:

### ePortfolio Data Utilization in LMS Learner Model

Authors:

#### Vija Vagale

Abstract: In this article a research about ePortfolio utilization in eLearning systems is given, utilization opportunities of the ePortfolio data for the adaptive learning system learner model initial data organization are described to partly solve learner model initial data problem. It ensures time and work resource economy as well as quick data acquisition comparing to lasting and tedious learner testing. The result of this work is a more complete description of the learner that is quite important in case of the adaptive system. Learner model is viewed in the lifelong learning context, turning more attention to the adult learning features. The article encourages discussion about general dynamic learner model creation and utilization in the adaptive learning system based on the research about possible ways of learner data acquisition.

Paper Nr: 200
Title:

### Agent-based Electronic Commerce with Ontology Services and Social Network based Support

Authors:

#### Virgínia Nascimento, Maria João Viamonte, Alda Canito and Nuno Silva

Abstract: In this paper we approach the semantic heterogeneity problem which arises in agent mediated electronic commerce, presenting the AEMOS system as a promising answer. AEMOS is an agent mediated electronic commerce platform which main goal is to enable an efficient and transparent negotiation between agents even when they use different ontologies to represent the same domain of knowledge. The system provides ontology services, more specifically ontology matching services, which are improved by the exploitation of emergent social networks. In this paper we present the currently implemented system and demonstrate how an agent mediated electronic commerce system may benefit from the inclusion and combination of ontology services and social network based support.

Paper Nr: 299
Title:

### Microworld-type Ethnoeducational Computer Materials to Support the Teaching of Nasa-Yuwe - Recommendations from a Software Engineering Disciplines Viewpoint for Constructing Microworld-type Ethnoeducational Materials Aimed at Supporting Nasa Yuwe Language Teaching

Authors:

#### Luz Marina Sierra, Edinson Alfonso Solarte Camayo, Jorge Armando Villegas, Tulio Rojas Curieux and Erwin Meza Vega

Abstract: The Nasa indigenous community has been promoting processes for the recovery and revitalization of the Nasa Yuwe language. The language is at risk because the vast majority of the young people in the resguardos use Castilian spanish. To address this problem, several IT-backed initiatives have been put in place with the aim of developing strategies to restore and revitalize Nasa Yuwe. Among these is a combined piece of research, innovation and technological development that seeks to propose a series of recommendations for the construction of microworld educational software to support Nasa Yuwe teaching. The recommendations come from a software engineering disciplines viewpoint. They take account both of specific aspects of educational software development and of characteristics pertaining to the culture and language of the Nasa community, and are expected to contribute significantly to the preparation of ethnoeducational software with the Nasa community. This paper is an important contribution, because it presents a way of use IT in linguistic heritage recovery, since an educational point of view with a high scientific rigor and supports it in the disciplines of software engineering, from which specific guidelines have been generated for the construction of educational software for indigenous communities, contextualized to the worldview and the significant scenarios of nasa culture.

Paper Nr: 312
Title:

### A Blended Mobile Learning Context Oriented Model in a Cloud Environment applied to a RE Course

Authors:

#### Fernando Moreira and Maria João Ferreira

Abstract: The increasing number of mobile devices in people’s day life and particularly among the young ones, leads to the new paradigms in several activity areas, particularly in education. As an example of a new paradigm in the teaching / learning process can be invoked the mobile learning supported by a cloud environment and by Bloom Taxonomy. In this paper and in the context of three-year graduate courses under Bologna Process European Degree structure at school, in Portugal, following the Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree in Information Systems from ACM/AIS, we intend to test Mobile Google Docs system, aligned with Bloom's Taxonomy, in our BML Context Oriented (BML-CO) model into a Requirement Engineering (RE) course.

## Area 5 - Human-Computer Interaction

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 244
Title:

### How are they Watching Me - Learning from Student Interactions with Multimedia Objects Captured from Classroom Presentations

Authors:

#### Caio Cesar Viel, Erick Lazaro Melo, Maria da Graça C. Pimentel and Cesar A. C. Teixeira

Abstract: The performance of a teacher in the exposition of a subject is a rich experience that can be captured and transformed into a corresponding multimedia learning object, given the multimodal and multi-device nature of the presentation. Using as a starting point an interactive multimedia object which is an electronic version of a problem solving lecture recorded by the teacher, in this paper we report how a group of students interacts with one multimedia learning object composed of synchronized videos, audio, images and context information. The qualitative analysis of the data allows the teacher to infer useful information not only for refining the lecture content but also for improving its presentation. The case study presented illustrates how a similar analysis can be performed by other instructors with respect to their own lectures, and demonstrates both the power of capturing the multimodal and multi-device nature of the original presentation, and the utility of logging the student-multimedia learning object interaction.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 45
Title:

### Early Usability Evaluation in Model Driven Framework

Authors:

Abstract: Usability evaluation play a key role in the user interfaces development process. It is a crucial part that constrains the success of an interactive application. Usability evaluation is usually conducted by end users or experts after the generation of the user interfaces. Therefore, the ability to go back and makes major changes to the design is greatly reduced. Recently, user interfaces engineering is moving towards Model Driven Development (MDD) process. The conceptual models have become a primary artifact in the development process. Therefore, evaluating the usability from the conceptual models would be a significant advantage with regard to saving time and resources. The present paper proposes a model-based usability evaluation method which allows designers to focus on the usability engineering from the conceptual models. The evaluation can be automated taking as input the conceptual model that represent the system abstractly.

Paper Nr: 76
Title:

### Log Analysis of Human Computer Interactions Regarding Break The Glass Accesses to Genetic Reports

Authors:

#### Ana Ferreira, Pedro Farinha, Cátia Santos-Pereira, Ricardo Correia, Pedro P. Rodrigues, Altamiro Costa-Pereira and Verónica Orvalho

Abstract: Patients’ privacy is critical in healthcare but users of Electronic Health Records (EHR) frequently circumvent existing security rules to perform their daily work. Users are so-called the weakest link in security but they are, many times, part of the solution when they are involved in systems’ design. In the healthcare domain, the focus is to treat patients (many times with scarce technological, time and human resources) and not to secure their information. Therefore, security must not interfere with this process but be present, nevertheless. Security usability issues must also be met with interdisciplinary knowledge from human-computer-interaction, social sciences and psychology. The main goal of this paper is to raise security and usability awareness with the analysis of users’ interaction logs of a BreakTheGlass (BTG) feature. This feature is used to restrict access to patient reports to a group of healthcare professionals within an EHR but also permit access control override in emergency and/or unexpected situations. The analysis of BTG user interaction logs allows, in a short time span and transparently to the user, revealing security and usability problems. This log analysis permits a better choice of methodologies to further apply in the investigation and resolution of the encountered problems.

Paper Nr: 103
Title:

### The NInA Framework - Using Gesture to Improve Interaction and Collaboration in Geographical Information Systems

Authors:

#### Daniel Y. T. Chino, Luciana A. S. Romani, Letricia P. S. Avalhais, Willian D. Oliveira, Renata R. V. Gonçalves, Caetano Traina Jr. and Agma J. M. Traina

Abstract: Nowadays, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have expanded their functionalities including larger interactive displays exploration of spatiotemporal data with several views. These systems maintain a traditional navigation method based on keyboard and mouse, interaction devices not well suited for large screens nor for collaborative work. This paper aims at showing the applicability of new devices to fill the usability gap for the scenario of large screens presentation, interaction and collaboration. New gesture-based devices have been proposed and adopted in games and medical applications, for example. This paper presents the NInA Framework, which allows an integration of natural user interface (NUI) on GIS, with the advantage of being expandable, as new demands are posed to that systems. The validation process of our NInA Kinect-based framework was made through user experiments involving specialists and non-specialists in TerrainViewer, a geographical information system, as well as experts and non-experts in the Kinect technology. The results showed that a NUI approach demands a short learning time, with just a couple of interactions and instructions, and the user is ready to go. Moreover, the users demonstrated greater satisfaction, leading to their productivity improvement.

Paper Nr: 104
Title:

### Exploring Human Computation and Social Computing to Inform the Design Process

Authors:

#### Roberto Romani and Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas

Abstract: Although several standards, recommendations and guidelines have been used to assist designers in their tasks, much of the design choices still rely heavily on the designer’s experience. In this work we argue that complex choices about interface elements (e.g. images, icons, sounds) could have the help of the users themselves to inform the designer´s choices. The paper situates the contribution in the intersection of the human computation and social computing fields, showing a preliminary survey of related work. Moreover, we illustrate the idea with an instantiation of an environment for designers, within the frontiers of human computation and social computing.

Paper Nr: 141
Title:

### The User Interface of a Medical First Aid Application - A Close-to-Realistic Usability Study with the Smartphone Application “Defi Now!”

Authors:

#### Karin Harbusch and Janine Paschke

Abstract: Several smartphone applications are available to support the delivery of medical first aid, in particular car-diopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), by untrained people. These apps support passers-by witnessing an emer-gency situation, or enable brushing up basic knowledge of first aid. Moreover, they inform about publicly available automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) and allow users to add the location of new devices. In this paper, we describe features of various first aid apps currently on the market. In order to find out whether or not these apps can really be helpful in emergency situations, we conducted a usability study with 74 par-ticipants who used the “Defi Now!” app. In order to simulate “realistic” conditions where the user is agitat-ed—as is the case when rescuing a person suffering from cardiac arrest—we induced fear by a psychologi-cally recommended method. Based on data from a questionnaire and video recordings, we discuss strong and weak points of “Defi Now!”. The app was judged to be very helpful for medically untrained people. Nonetheless, our observations suggest several improvements to the user interface.

Paper Nr: 154
Title:

### Assessment of User Experience with Responsive Web Applications using Expert Method and Cognitive Walkthrough - A Case Study

Authors:

#### Malgorzata Plechawska-Wojcik, Sergio Lujan Mora and Lukasz Wojcik

Abstract: The paper presents a case study of Responsive web design GUI quality testing. The case study use specially designed web page and the adjusted testing procedure. The procedure is based on the expert method and cognitive walkthrough and is adjusted to web pages created using Responsive web design. The paper outlines contain the method description and results including questionnaire summary and experts opinion. The most important users remarks concerning GUI adjusting to different devices are also presented.

Paper Nr: 216
Title:

### HCI Architecture for Deaf Communities Cultural Inclusion and Citizenship

Authors:

#### Laura S. García, Cayley Guimarães, Diego R. Antunes and Sueli Fernandes

Abstract: There is a lack of adequate support for the Deaf culture, and few researches to inform designers on how to build computational tools to promote inclusion and citizenship for the Deaf. Deaf culture is an expression applied to the social movement that holds deafness to be a difference in human experience – which includes the right to use their natural language: Sign Language (SL) – rather than a disability. The present paper describes an integrated approach through assumptions, methodological strategies and architecture which has been proved so far to be adequate both computationally and socially.

Paper Nr: 218
Title:

### Flexinterface: A Framework to Provide Flexible Mobile Phone User Interfaces - Addressing the Elderly Diversity

Authors:

#### Vinícius P. Gonçalves, Sibelius Seraphini, Vânia P. A. Neris and Jó Ueyama

Abstract: This paper outlines our work to provide flexible smartphone interfaces targeting the elderly. Our research employs the Lancaster OpenCom middleware approach running on Android mobile phones. In this paper we present FlexInterface, an approach for a reconfigurable interface for elderly people and show how our model can help elderly people while interacting with mobile phones. We claim that flexible interfaces supports interaction in a more universal manner and in this paper we consider the elderly population. We carried out an assessment with the elderly to verify the feasibility of the proposal. The results suggest that there was a reduction in interaction time with the use of flexible interfaces and an increase in user satisfaction.

Paper Nr: 285
Title:

### Co-authoring Proto-patterns to Support on Designing Systems to Be Adequate for Users´ Diversity

Authors:

#### Junia Coutinho Anacleto, Marcos Alexandre Rose Silva and Elis Cristina Montoro Hernandes

Abstract: This paper describes about co-authoring proto-patterns, i.e., patterns candidate, with successful solutions for recurrent problems on generating adequate system that allows users, as co-authors, create, format and make available the content of system according to users´ profile, language, needs, etc. A case study, considering educational environment, was done in order to collect evidences about the use of these proto-patterns and, it was observed that these proto-patterns express the essence of solutions to support on designing systems to allow co-authoring.

Paper Nr: 288
Title:

### Mastering ERP Interface Complexity - A Scalable User Interface Concept for ERP Systems

Authors:

#### Christian Lambeck and Rainer Groh

Abstract: In recent literature, numerous research efforts addressed the usability of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. Although several heuristics, surveys and interviews provided valuable results to understand and improve the user satisfaction of ERP, explicit research on the user interface design has been rarely discussed. As ERP systems have a high dissemination in many enterprise areas, usability issues located in the user interface have a significant impact on millions of users. This paper gives an overview of the related work in the fields of usability studies, complexity reduction strategies and visual information presentation in ERP systems. The conclusion reveals a niche currently not considered in research. Therefore, an abstract interface model is introduced that aims to establish a new understanding of accessing ERP systems. The scalable user interface concept attempts to reduce the problem of user guidance and overall system complexity to ease the user’s system access.

Paper Nr: 307
Title:

### Who Is This Guy Who Liked My Picture? - Privacy Control Mechanisms on Facebook for Generations X and Y

Authors:

#### Glauce Borges, Thaissa Ribeiro, Cristiano Maciel and Patricia Cristiane de Souza

Abstract: The abundance of personal data exchanged through social networks has caused internet users to unintentionally expose themselves to others, which may lead to unpleasant consequences. This statement fuels the debate on user privacy in social networks. In this context, the present study seeks to investigate how Generations X and Y distinctly employ privacy controls on Facebook by evaluating user interaction by means of usability testing. In general, the study showed that users of both generations found it difficult to use privacy configurations of Facebook, mainly due to usability issues. However, Generation X users displayed less ability handling these features and, furthermore, were less concerned with privacy of their shared data. Tests suggest that few users are familiar with all the resources available in privacy tools currently offered by Facebook. Some redesign solutions were discussed that seek to mitigate problems and thus contribute to more accessible and user-friendly features for both generations.

Paper Nr: 7
Title:

### Social Robots, Cross-cultural Differences

Authors:

#### Ana R. Delgado and Margarita G. Marquez

Abstract: The study of emotion abilities is of interest to Artificial Intelligence because identifying and responding appropriately to the affective states of humans is thought to make users more prone to interact with robots. However, cross-cultural differences in social communication are common. The CAD (Contempt, Anger, Disgust) hypothesis proposes that these three emotions are elicited by different violations of moral codes. Our exploratory study of texts from a corpus of Spanish contextualized words shows that both the emotion receiver and its perceived cause are different for these emotions: disgust takes as its object mostly something concrete, anger is preferentially felt towards another person, and contempt towards an abstract object. In Spain, disgust was associated with prejudice, and anger with altruistic motives while contempt remained the most elusive of the triad. In Latin America, both disgust and contempt were associated with prejudice, while the altruistic function of anger failed to reach significance. Differences concerning the moral functions of anger and contempt corroborate that the cultural context in which emotions are expressed can change their moral meaning. The procedure is an ecologically valid one that can be of help for designing more realistic social robots.

Paper Nr: 56
Title:

### Emotion Recognition through Keystroke Dynamics on Touchscreen Keyboards

Authors:

#### Matthias Trojahn, Florian Arndt, Markus Weinmann and Frank Ortmeier

Abstract: Automatic emotion recognition through computers offers a lot of advantages, as the interaction between human and computers can be improved. For example, it is possible to be responsive to anger or frustration of customers automatically while working with a webpage. Mouse cursor movements and keystroke dynamics were already used and examined for such a recognition on conventional keyboards. The aim of this work is to investigate keystroke dynamics on touchscreen keyboards which gets a cumulative relevance through the increasingly further circulation of smartphones and tablets. Furthermore, it is possible to record additional information like pressure and size of keystrokes. This could increase the recognition rate for emotions. In order to record the keystroke dynamics, an application and keyboard layout for Android OS were developed. In addition, hypotheses were established on the basis of Yerkes-Dodson-Law and Flow theory and besides, a study with 152 test persons for the data collection was implemented. Subsequently, a data evaluation with the SPSS software was accomplished. Most of the hypotheses were confirmed and the results of the study show that emotions can be explained by the keystroke dynamics and recognized in this way.

Paper Nr: 74
Title:

### Exploring Twofold Adaptability to the User Interface - Different Users and Multiple Devices

Authors:

#### Ig Ibert Bittencourt, Maria Cecília Baranauskas, Diego Dermeval, Roberto Pereira and Juliana Braga

Abstract: The Web movement beyond desktop to different devices amplified the possibilities to ensure access to in-formation for all. Nevertheless, the consideration of multiple devices and different user conditions for the applications brings complexity to the design and development processes. On the one hand, some existing tools take into account the design and development of user interfaces according to the target device, but do not consider the diversity in terms of end user conditions (e.g., abilities, preferences, culture, limitations, education). On the other hand, some systems provide the adjustment to users with special needs, but do not adapt to multiple devices. In this paper, we present results of a systematic review on literature to build a roadmap on the twofold adaptability of user interfaces: for different users and multiple devices. The results point out a growing demand for solutions that consider adaptation to both: different users and devices; moreover a distribution of the works per type of adaptation mechanisms found suggest aspects still to be covered in further research in the field.

Paper Nr: 95
Title:

### Sociality in Web Forum

Authors:

#### Bing Wu

Abstract: We use exponential random graph to examine the generative processes that give rise to widespread sociality patterns in web forums. We apply the methods to Yahoo finance Wal-Mart message board from 1999 to 2008 to investigate authors’ propensities to establish relationship increase by activity. Research results shows that although having the lowest percentage in Web forums, medium activity authors are more social than high activity authors, which shows the consistent pattern with few core members contributing the majority of content. Considering sentiment, objective authors have the highest sociality, followed by negative subjective authors, which is proportional to the constitution of author sentiment group. Similar situation happened in author sociality by class, authors’ tendency to establish relationship is quite different. We conclude with a discussion of how exponential random graph may contribute to our understanding of social interaction structure and the processes that create it.

Paper Nr: 118
Title:

### A Study of Cognitive Effort of Decision Makers with Different NC under Framing

Authors:

#### Chiung-Wen Hsu and Chen-li Kuo

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine cognitive effort of decision makers with different need for cognition (NC) while making decision under framing. Hundreds of empirical studies have demonstrated the framing effect moderating by NC in various contexts. However, these studies often treated cognition as a black box and focused on the outcomes rather than on the process by which decisions with different NC are made. In order to explore cognitive process of decision makers with different NC under framed problems, our research observes the cognitive effort of decision makers with different NC (High vs. Low NC) under different framing (Positive vs. Negative framing) from the perspective of their information process. A laboratory experiment of 65 subjects was conducted. Eye-tracking was applied to evaluate decision makers’ cognitive effort. The results indicate that all subjects are susceptible to framing effect, and NC doesn’t moderate framing effect. Decision makers with high NC will spend more cognitive effort to framed problems. In addition, decision makers with high NC, compared with those with low NC, will pay more cognitive effort in negative frame, but not for positive framing. Finally, there is no significant relationship between cognitive effort and framing effect. The results could compensate the shortage of past studies related to framing effect and NC, which only focused on final choices. In addition, by using eye tracking, we also unveil the track of information process before framing effect generated, which could benefit the richness of research on framing effect and NC.

Paper Nr: 133
Title:

### Visualizing ERP Usage Logs in Real Time

Authors:

#### Wendy Lucas, Jennifer Xu and Tamara Babaian

Abstract: We present a prototype system that visualizes business process models extracted from usage logs for providing support to Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system users in real time. While process mining and visualization techniques are commonly applied to off-line data analytics and process management, far less attention has been focused on how they can be applied in real time to assisting users of complex system interfaces. The approach described in this paper demonstrates the application of interactive visualizations to providing ERP system users with process-, task-, and context-related information during active system use. Such information is vital to the users’ understanding of the supported processes and affects their ability to make the most effective use of the system, yet it is typically hidden behind opaque interfaces. Dynamically-generated interactive process visualizations that draw on data captured to usage logs are one way to open a much needed window for ERP users.

Paper Nr: 145
Title:

### Discovering Potentials in Enterprise Interface Design - A Review of Our Latest Case Studies in the Enterprise Domain

Authors:

#### Christian Lambeck, Dietrich Kammer and Rainer Groh

Abstract: User interfaces in enterprise systems are primarily based on visualizations such as tables and forms, which are state-of-the-art since the middle of the 1990s. Additionally, most information is presented in a textual way and offers little capabilities to change the mode of presentation or the level of detail. The authors argue that these deficiencies are a major reason for existing usability problems related to the graphical user interface. Hence, this contribution presents four case studies, which aim to establish innovative visualization and interaction modalities in the field of enterprise systems.

Paper Nr: 149
Title:

### An Adaptation Architecture of Multimedia Documents for Management of the Quality of Service

Authors:

#### Farida Bettou, Mahmoud Boufaida and Ilhem Labed

Abstract: The democratization of the means of wireless communication coupled with advanced technological hardware can now offer portable devices that fit in the hand with a capacity of computation and means of wireless communication such as mini PCs, PDAs, mobile phones and even wireless sensors. Distributed multimedia applications are a challenge as they try to meet the constraints of the multimedia document, so that the network provides no guarantee of quality of service (QoS). We propose to adapt multimedia documents based on changes of context. In this paper, we present an architecture that aims at adapting content and presentation of multimedia documents in the context of the user. We develop an adaptation service cannot only detect and solve the problem of heterogeneity between incompatible components, but also to manage the adaptation with preferences of the user. We propose to see the adaptation as a non-functional property, provided by an administrator and handled by an adaptation manager QoS.

Paper Nr: 194
Title:

### Quality of Experience in 3D Multimedia

Authors:

#### Antoine Lavignotte, Christophe Gravier, Julien Subercaze and Jacques Fayolle

Abstract: Quality of Experience (QoE) is a key element in the search for rapid growth of three-dimensional video technology. Research concerning the study of QoE in a 3D environment is on the move. This paper proposes a review of 3D QoE specificities. We present the actual findings in this area as well as a national and international leading projects. Thus, any researcher wishing to know more about this domain will be able to start with the foundations necessary to understand the issues related to 3D.

Paper Nr: 217
Title:

### HCI in Context - What the Words Reveal about It

Authors:

#### Samuel Bastos Buchdid and M. Cecília C. Baranauskas

Abstract: Information and communication technologies are ever more present in our lives. Considerations about daily, emotional and contextual issues have been necessary in the HCI agenda for a design that is suitable for contemporary devices and uses, and also for an increasingly diversified audience. Based on an analysis of titles found in the full program of two major conferences in the field of HCI (ACM CHI and IFIP Interact), this work intends to identify the main focuses of the contributions over the last few years. Results of analysis based on tag cloud representations and comparison of collected data are presented and discussed; they reveal gaps, similarities and differences between what has been discussed in those forums and the trends indicated by research references in the field.

Paper Nr: 237
Title:

### Memorability Experiment Vs. Expert Method in Websites Usability Evaluation

Authors:

#### Marek Miłosz, Magdalena Borys and Maciej Laskowski

Abstract: The quantitation of website usability is possible by using experimental method with a group of users and experts. In this paper an experiment of determining the short memorability is presented, along with using its results for the comparative assessment of usability of Polish public administration websites. The expert review was conducted on the same websites using the authors’ list of control questions and method for determining the complex assessment of website usability. The degree of correlation of both methods is presented and discussed.

Paper Nr: 267
Title:

### Cross-cultural Website Design Model

Authors:

#### Gatis Vitols, Irina Arhipova and Ingus Smits

Abstract: People from various cultures not only speak different languages, but also think and act differently. Diversity of Web users causes multiple problems for international companies, which want to provide their services using World Wide Web. One of important tools for the World Wide Web service providers is websites. It is proven that website elements that comply with users from particular culture can not comply with users from other cultures. The aim of the paper is to propose cross-cultural website design model that support development of cross-culturally usable websites. Localization strategy must be used in order to perform a successful design of cross-cultural website for target culture. Two models are widely applied for cross-cultural website design: culture marker model and the culture dimension model. Drawbacks of existing cross-cultural website design models are identified and improved model is proposed. The proposed cross-cultural website design model suggests averting drawbacks of existing models with synthesis and application of multiple culture dimensions, involvement of experts from the target culture in the process of model execution, addition of stage for selection of usability methods and criteria, and with design and usability evaluation of the website prototypes.

Paper Nr: 311
Title:

### Change Operators for Managing Schema Evolution in Geographical Databases

Authors:

#### Sonda Zghal

Abstract: In this paper, we propose a set of change operators for schema versioning management in Geographical DataBases (GDB). We deal with a significant number of changes that we believe they are the most common. These changes are: class adjunction, class suppression and class structure modification translated into: attribute adjunction, attribute suppression and attribute type modification, method adjunction, method suppression and method modification. In fact, these changes take the schema of the GDB from a state to another. In order to keep track of all these changes, we follow a temporal object oriented versioning approach. We give, in this paper, an overview of this approach in order to better assimilating the description of each change operator. To facilitate the transformation of these change operators into any query language, we formalize them using Hoare logic. An illustrative example is given showing their feasibility.

## Area 6 - Enterprise Architecture

Full Papers
Paper Nr: 70
Title:

### Examining Potentials of Building M&A Preparedness

Authors:

#### Nilesh Vaniya, Peter Bernus and Ovidiu Noran

Abstract: Enterprises are systems of systems that continuously evolve during their lifespan, be it in a directed or emergent way. As enterprises are in fact socio-technical systems, this evolution may occur in one or more specific areas - such as the human / organizational, the technology and / or the Information System that integrates the activities performed by humans and machines (technology). This paper addresses a special type of change, brought about by enterprise mergers or acquisitions (M&As). M&As are an important strategic transformation instrument in the hands of management; however, literature reveals that an alarming high percentage of M&As do not achieve their declared objectives. In this paper we attempt to a) demonstrate that the success of such strategic changes depends on several essential and largely overlooked factors, and b) outline a possible approach of building preparedness for M&As), so as to improve the chances of success. This paper also presents a retrospective M&A case analysis to demonstrate the types of potential problems that could have been effectively addressed by anticipatory transformation facilitated by the proposed preparedness building approach.

Paper Nr: 130
Title:

### Gap Analysis in Enterprise Architecture using Semantic Web Technologies

Authors:

#### Philipp Diefenthaler and Bernhard Bauer

Abstract: Enterprise architectures (EA) can be used for analyses in different ways and thus can support the decision making process that has to cope with an increasing number of changes, the clarification of the extent of changes and the complexity of these changes. A gap analysis is used in the context of EA to identify differences between two states of an EA. Formal models of an EA allow tool support and the visual representation of these models. This paper shows how a gap analysis can be performed using semantic web technologies on a high-level current and target state of an EA. With the results of the gap analysis and a detailed current state it is possible to show a migration path from the current state of the EA to a plan or target EA.

Short Papers
Paper Nr: 109
Title:

### Intentional Modeling for Problem Solving in Enterprise Architecture

Authors:

#### Sagar Sunkle, Vinay Kulkarni and Suman Roychoudhury

Abstract: Taking and executing correct decisions is critical in enterprise systems which are characterized by rapid changes along interconnected dimensions. Enterprise architecture (EA) frameworks offer holistic treatment of enterprise systems but constitute only one part of the solution to problems arising due to organizational changes. The other, less explored part is the ability to explicate and analyze the intentions behind major decisions. We investigate a step-by-step approach where intentional modeling is treated as a problem solving technique. In our approach, an intentional model devoid of goals is obtained from the existing EA model via mapping. It is expanded by representing the problems due to organizational changes as goals and soft goals and alternative solutions to them. The final intentional model is transformed back to an actionable EA model via the same mapping. In the case study, we re-imagine the evolution of our model-driven software development unit as an enterprise where two stages in its evolution are treated as as-is and to-be states and the journey is captured in terms of intentional models. Initial explorations suggest that the mapping enables a clear path from as-is to to-be states of an EA model while preserving the reasoning behind every alternative chosen.

Paper Nr: 125
Title:

### A Model Driven Approach for Open Distributed Systems using an Enterprise Architecture Framework

Authors:

#### Melanie Langermeier, Arne-Jørgen Berre and Bernhard Bauer

Abstract: Open distributed systems are complex systems, which contain a lot of components provided by different vendors and built with different technologies. The use of well-established and standardized modeling techniques is one way to deal with the problems that occur in the specification and development process of these systems. Enterprise Architecture Frameworks provide a good foundation to structure the various required modeling techniques. Existing modeling solutions in the context of Enterprise Architecture Frameworks do not provide optimal support for the specification of open distributed systems. In this paper a coherent MODeling approach for open distributed systems using an Enterprise Architecture framework (MODEA) is developed. The approach uses the latest OMG modeling standards. As an enterprise architecture framework the Reference Model for Open Distributed Systems (RM-ODP) has been chosen. Finally MODEA is illustrated through the specification of two case studies.

Paper Nr: 138
Title:

### Complex Event as an Core Aspect of Enterprise Architecture - EDEMF: Event Driven Enterprise Architecture Modeling Framework

Authors:

#### Hyeonsook Kim, Samia Oussena and Peter Komisarczuk

Abstract: For the last decade, Complex Event Processing (CEP) has been emerged as a powerful instrument supporting a more agile and intelligent enterprise. Although several studies have attempted to extend current business modelling standards with elements of complex event modelling they have not fully integrated into Enterprise Architecture (EA). EA provides holistic approach of enterprise business and IT system modelling. In our view CEP is not just an element associated with a business process, but at the centre of business analysis and design. This paper proposes an EA modelling framework that takes CEP as a core aspect of modelling. The framework supports CEP based business architecture within different levels of abstraction: contextual, conceptual/logical, and physical. Meta-models in three hierarchies and model mapping between the meta-models have been developed and demonstrated on a linked data platform in a case study. The case study used the framework as a tool of analysis and modelling, aiming to integrate scattered information as event data by specifying a complex event layer on top of legacy systems. The designed models were then transformed into executable program codes using the model transformation, for example, RDF script from information model; SPARQL query from complex event model.

Paper Nr: 169
Title:

### Semantic Enterprise Architecture Management

Authors:

#### Willy Chen, Claudia Hess, Melanie Langermeier, Janno Stuelpnagel and Philipp Diefenthaler

Abstract: Enterprise architecture management (EAM) provides information about an enterprise and its information systems landscape for thorough analysis. Semantic technologies allow for integrating data sets from various relevant information sources within enterprises in a so-called EA repository, which serves as a comprehensive formal information base for EAM. We call this approach Semantic Enterprise Architecture Management, SEAM for short. We show how SEAM uses semantic technologies to bridge the heterogeneity between various data sets relevant for EAM, such as The Open Group Architecture Framework (TOGAF) models, Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) business process models and Service-oriented Architecture (SOA) models. Query answering and reasoning enable detailed analysis and consistency checks on the SEAM repository in order to discover complex dependencies and implicit knowledge.

Paper Nr: 221
Title:

### Automating the Architecture Evaluation of Enterprise Information Systems

Authors:

#### Felipe Pinto, Uirá Kulesza and Eduardo Guerra

Abstract: Traditional scenario-based architectural analysis methods rely on manual review-based evaluation that requires advanced skills from architects and evaluators. They are applied when the architecture has been specified, but before its implementation has begun. The system implementation is one additional and fundamental element that should be considered during the software architecture evaluation. In this paper, we propose an approach to add information, which ideally should come from traditional evaluation methods, about scenarios and quality attributes to the source code using metadata in order to allow the automatic analysis producing a report with information about scenarios, quality attributes, source code assets and potential tradeoff points among quality attributes. The paper also presents the preliminary results of the approach application to an enterprise web information system and an e-commerce web system.

Paper Nr: 264
Title:

### An Ontology based Approach to Integrate Data and Maps - In the Government Enterprise Architecture: A Case Study

Authors:

#### Daniela Giordano, Alfredo Torre, Carmelo Samperi, Salvatore Alessi and Alberto Faro

Abstract: The problem of managing data and maps within an ontological approach is little studied in the Government Enterprise Architecture. Aim of this paper is to present a methodology to solve this problem in case we would join municipal and cadastral data bases. In particular, we aim at linking the information contained in the local taxation registry to the urban territory to allow the Public Administration managers to check if the taxes have been paid, and the citizens to compute the correct amount to pay. We plan to extend this methodology to manage other relevant location based services that need to interconnect public and private data stores of city interest to vector drawings derived from the Cadastre or other CAD systems to define territorial plans immediately understandable to all the involved organizations.

Paper Nr: 270
Title:

### A New Approach to Semantically Derive Enterprise Information Architecture from Business Process Architecture

Authors:

#### Mahmood Ahmad and Mohammed Odeh

Abstract: The design of enterprise information architecture (EIA) is a critical success factor of the information management capability of an enterprise. The EIA design not only supports business process re-engineering activity but can also facilitate radical design of new business processes. This paper demonstrates that EIA can be derived semantically from the business process architecture, hence overcoming the classical problems of time-consuming interviews for business information analysts by using semantically enriched BPA to derive information entities and processes with the help of domain and process ontologies. The cancer care and registration process of a health organisation has been used as a case-study for demonstration purposes. This approach is currently being transformed into a generic Framework for semantic enterprise information architecture design with an aim to bridge the gap between business architectures and enterprise information architectures.

Paper Nr: 279
Title:

### Towards an Enterprise Architecture based Strategic Alignment Model - An Evaluation of SAM based on ISO 15704

Authors:

#### Virginie Goepp and Michaël Petit

Abstract: The Strategic Alignment Model (SAM) remains one of the most relevant and cited models aiming at helping managers to achieve business/IT (Information Technology) alignment. Several alternative approaches extend or improve this model. A notable stream of research suggests applying Enterprise Architecture principles complementarily or independently to the SAM. We analyze these proposals and argue that they are sometimes fuzzy and hard to compare because they all use a specific structure or vocabulary making the objectivation of their strengths and weaknesses difficult. Some common vocabulary and concepts such as those of the ISO 15704 standard on Enterprise Reference Architectures and Methodologies are needed to make their comparison rigorous. We report on our ongoing research, using this standard to analyse the SAM.

Paper Nr: 282
Title:

### Enterprise Architecture Value Model

Authors:

#### Eapen George and George Feuerlicht

Abstract: Enterprise Architecture (EA) is gaining acceptability as an approach for strategic alignment of business and IT. While it is widely accepted that EA is essential for optimizing the value of IT in organizations, most IT managers find it difficult to communicate the value of EA using terms meaningful to business decision makers. This paper presents a Value Model for expressing the business value contribution of EA function in organizations. The model aims to communicate the value of EA to stakeholders and senior management using a language that can be understood by business leaders. This simple, two dimensional model relates major Enterprise Architecture activities to key business objectives. High level business metrics are used as a basis of the evaluation of the maturity of Enterprise Architecture function.

Paper Nr: 21
Title:

### Artefact-oriented Business Process Modelling - An Ontological Dependency Approach

Authors:

#### Yu-Chun Pan, Yinshan Tang and Stephen R. Gulliver

Abstract: Business process modelling can help an organisation better understand and improve its business processes. Most business process modelling methods adopt a task- or activity-based approach to identifying business processes. Within our work, we use activity theory to categorise elements within organisations as being either human beings, activities or artefacts. Due to the direct relationship between these three elements, an artefact-oriented approach to organisation analysis emerges. Organisational semiotics highlights the ontological dependency between affordances within an organisation. We analyse the ontological dependency between organisational elements, and therefore produce the ontology chart for artefact-oriented business process modelling in order to clarify the relationship between the elements of an organisation. Furthermore, we adopt the techniques from semantic analysis and norm analysis, of organisational semiotics, to develop the artefact-oriented method for business process modelling. The proposed method provides a novel perspective for identifying and analysing business processes, as well as agents and artefacts, as the artefact-oriented perspective demonstrates the fundamental flow of an organisation. The modelling results enable an organisation to understand and model its processes from an artefact perspective, viewing an organisation as a network of artefacts. The information and practice captured and stored in artefact can also be shared and reused between organisations that produce similar artefacts.

Paper Nr: 43
Title:

### EASI! Enterprise Architecture for Seamless Integration

Authors:

#### Bruno Traverson

Abstract: EASI (Enterprise Architecture for Seamless Integration) aims at providing a pragmatic walk in TOGAF (The Open Group Architecture Framework) to enable seamless integration of R&D production into operational Information Systems. The key points of EASI adaptation are reduction to a minimal extensible set of concepts, central focus on correspondence management and separation of publication and internal forms of the IS Repository. EASI has been successfully used in case studies in the utility domain and implemented in an open source modelling tool.

Paper Nr: 52
Title:

### A Survey on Time-aware Business Process Modeling

Authors:

#### Saoussen Cheikhrouhou, Slim Kallel, Nawal Guermouche and Mohamed Jmaiel

Abstract: One key perspective when dealing with Business Process Management (BPM) is time. All business experts agree upon the fact that time is a key resource for each business process within an organisation. Indeed, time managing is an effective cost and error reduction strategy. Consequently, modeling and managing temporal requirements in the business process field is becoming a topic of intensive research. This paper presents a survey of the existing approaches to specifying and verifying the temporal perspective in business processes.

Paper Nr: 63
Title:

### A Generic Workflow Metamodel to Support Resource-aware Decision Making

Authors:

#### Ravi Ramdoyal, Christophe Ponsard, Myriam-Amina Derbali, Gabriel Schwanen, Isabelle Linden and Jean-Marie Jacquet

Abstract: When dealing with workflows, either at design-time or run-time, it is very likely to have to take resources into account at some points. Many kinds of requirements on workflows can involve resources: they can constraints the execution of specific tasks, require global optimization, allow some flexibility or not, etc. However, resource is seldom expressed as “first class citizen” in many workflow definition languages. Hence it is difficult to design rich reasoning abilities on top of them and consequently this does not ease the development of powerful resource-aware decision support. In this paper, we propose an enhanced workflow metamodel capturing the resource dimension within both design-time and run-time dimensions. Based on this metamodel, we illustrate some interesting usage scenarios coping with design-time aspects (e.g. potential bottlenecks) and, most importantly, run-time aspects (e.g. strategies from intelligent recovery, degraded mode). The model was elicited and validated from an industrial case study which is illustrated in a simplified way.

Paper Nr: 77
Title:

### Towards Enterprise Management Systems - A Generic and Flexible Information Representation Approach

Authors:

#### Andreas Lux, Jörg Hess and Rudi Herterich

Abstract: This paper describes an enterprise management system which provides an integrated approach to tackle management relevant topics like business process management, quality management, audit management, internal risk and control management, enterprise architecture management, compliance management and so on within a single information system. The new term “enterprise management system (EMS)” is introduced for such a kind of management system. The core idea is a generic, yet flexible object model for any kind of relevant information, e.g. audit, risk, measure, process, process step, control. The different kind of information is related to each other by links with semantic expressiveness. The approach was successfully implemented in the enterprise management system DHC VISION, which is used today worldwide by medium- and large-sized enterprises.

Paper Nr: 86
Title:

### Business Process Modeling Languages Supporting Collaborative Networks

Authors:

#### Hodjat Soleimani Malekan and Hamideh Afsarmanesh

Abstract: Formalizing the definition of Business Processes (BPs) performed within each enterprise is fundamental for effective deployment of their competencies and capabilities within Collaborative Networks (CN). In our approach, every enterprise in the CN is represented by its set of BPs, so that other enterprises can see and potentially share them when developing integrated BPs. Adoption of a suitable BP modeling language (BPML) is therefore critical for this purpose, while challenging due to the variety of existing tools and standards each with different levels of expressiveness and ambiguities. So far, surveys published on BP modeling approaches have compared several features of the main BP languages and standards. However, these surveys mostly focus on specific standards and tools and not on different categories of BPMLs. Moreover, there are no surveys addressing the need to fulfil CN’s requirements. Therefore, aiming to select the most suitable BPML for the purpose of modelling and representing BPs in CNs, while overviewing the defined BPML categories, the paper introduces a new categorization of the main BPMLs. Furthermore, focusing on enterprise collaboration requirements, a specific set of criteria is introduced for comparing these categories. Finally, different categories of BPMLs are compared, when addressing their suitability to support CNs.

Paper Nr: 117
Title:

### Enhancing Enterprise Information Systems Synergy in Disaster Management

Authors:

#### Ovidiu Noran

Abstract: Climate change-triggered catastrophic events appear to be steadily increasing in intensity and frequency. Proper preparation, response and recovery are essential in order to survive and recover from disasters. Un-fortunately however, the organizations responsible for delivering emergency response services often under-perform, mainly owing to the lack of proper collaboration (especially interoperation) of their information systems. This paper analyses disaster management-specific collaboration issues from an enterprise information systems perspective and proposes improvements based on advances in information systems and in-teroperability research, using an enterprise architecture perspective and artefacts in order to provide a sus-tainable holistic and life cycle-based solution.

Paper Nr: 155
Title:

### Enterprise Architecture Models - Description of Integrated Components for Validation - A Case Study of Student Internship Programme

Authors:

#### Joe Essien and Samia Oussena

Abstract: Enterprise Architecture (EA) has been defined as the organization of a system embodied in its components, relationships to each other, environment, the principle guiding its design and evolution (IEEE, 2000). Thus an important characteristic of EA is to provide a holistic view of the enterprise visualizing the relevant aspects of the business for specific stakeholders. However, one of the many concerns of this interest has been how to deal with the complex challenges of implementing the models with the ability to validate its integrated components to ensure conformity with individual stakeholder’s motivation. To achieve this, methodologies that describe components in relation to their behavioral attributes, impact on other elements in the domain and their dependencies have been postulated. Albeit, studies show that these taxonomies do not adequately address this requirement (Lankhorst, 2013). This article analyzes the EA concepts of ArchiMate, focusing on the business and application layers with the objective to extend motivation with tests specifications using the model-driven approach thus offer descriptive semantics for validation. The paper contributes to a better understanding on how EA models can be validated thus improve alignment with the business vision and strategy. Student Internship Program case study is used to exemplify this hypothesis.

Paper Nr: 159
Title:

### Analysis of Interoperability in the Queensland Disaster Management System

Authors:

#### Amirhossein Eslami Andargoli, Peter Bernus and Hadi Kandjani

Abstract: The increasing rate of natural and man-made disaster draws considerable attention from decision makers and planners in communities and governments. Disaster Management projects require the collaboration of several disaster management organizations and it results in heterogeneous systems. Interoperability of these heterogeneous systems is essential in order to enable effective and feasible collaboration among various organizations. This paper investigates interoperability issues in Queensland disaster management by analyzing current Queensland floods using Enterprise Architecture (EA) principles. Finally, a reference model is proposed to improve interoperability in Queensland disaster management system.

Paper Nr: 181
Title:

Authors:

#### Alexander Gromoff, Nikolay Kazantsev, Mikhail Ponfilenok and Julia Stavenko

Abstract: In this study with the aim to increase the agility of enterprise we try to analyze a co-adoption of modern concepts: application of enterprise architecture (EA) in combination with real-time business process generation on cloud-based service. The process of business model generation was simulated by transformation of particular business request in semantic form into sequence of executable blocks thus forming workflow. During the generation all necessary requirements for resources, such as information, intellectual and professional skills, inputs and outputs, quality and operational risk limitations, controls and monitoring, are formed. Next the formed requirements are to be satisfied by appropriate selections from the Cloud facilities and approved by expert commission. Finally after several iterations the required business model will be created in reality and could be executed with predicted results.

Paper Nr: 238
Title:

### Usability of Knowledge Grid in Smart City Concepts

Authors:

#### Katarzyna Marciniak and Mieczysław L. Owoc

Abstract: Knowledge grid (KG) is a promising concept of man-computer global infrastructure aimed at knowledge services, which is being gradually developed. Global infrastructure of modern cities needs to be supported by efficient information and communication technologies considered to be a specific ecosystem. The ultimate goal of this paper is to present ways of implementation KG as some sort of knowledge management in general concepts of smart city (SC). The paper is managed as follows. After short introduction concerning research context the discussed concepts of KG and SC are presented. In the main section real-life examples of SC implementation are investigated in order to identify and describe roles of KG approach in this area. It allows for formulation conclusions on intersection of two approaches investigated.

Paper Nr: 240
Title:

### Towards Security Awareness in Designing Service-oriented Architectures

Authors:

#### Pascal Bou Nassar, Youakim Badr, Frédérique Biennier and Kablan Barbar

Abstract: Many information security approaches deal with service-oriented architectures by focusing on security policies, requirements and technical implementation during service design, specification and implementation phases. Nevertheless, service-oriented architectures are increasingly deployed in open, distributed and dynamic environments, which particularly require an end-to-end security at each phase of the service’s lifecycle. Moreover, the security should not only focus on services without considering the risks and threats that might be caused by elements from business activities or underlying hardware and software infrastructure. In this paper, we develop a model highlighting the dependency between elements at business, service and infrastructure levels, defining the design context. In addition, we develop a holistic approach to define a security conceptual model, including services, security risks and security policies and guides all phases in a typical design method for service-oriented architectures.

Paper Nr: 284
Title:

### Towards a Process Patterns based Approach for Promoting Adaptability in Configurable Process Models

Authors:

#### Hanae Sbai, Mounia Fredj and Laila Kjiri

Abstract: Reference process modeling approach has been proposed in order to provide a generic solution for reuse in business process management. These models are intended to be adapted by different organizations to respond to new requirements. As a result of this adaptation, a set of variants of the reference process model must be managed. In this context, configurable solutions have been developed to manage variability by integrating all possible configurations. However, enterprises are involved in competitive and complex environments which impose them to often adapt their configurable process models to deal with the increasing globalisation. Therefore, configurable process models should evolve over time in terms of activities, resources and data to meet new needs. In this paper, we propose a process patterns based approach to guide designers in evolving configurable process models at design time as a first step of our contribution to provide an automated support for evolving configurable process models. The presentation of our process patterns system is limited in this paper to the Activity Insertion Process Pattern.